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Operating systems

Definitions related to operating systems, including tech terms about open source and proprietary operating systems and words and phrases about system programs, boot mechanisms, kernels, command interpreters, DLL libraries and drivers.

GOO - OS-

  • Goobuntu - Goobuntu (Google Ubuntu) is the operating system (OS) that Google uses for its employee computer desktop workstations.
  • Google Android 4.4 KitKat - Android 4.4 KitKat is a version of Google's operating system (OS) for smartphones and tablets.
  • Google Chrome Enterprise - Google Chrome Enterprise is the business-focused solution for Chrome devices, Chrome browser and Chrome OS.
  • Google Chrome OS - Google Chrome OS is an open source lightweight operating system (OS).
  • gOS (good operating system) - gOS (pronounced gee-oss) is a Linux distribution designed for use with Web-based applications rather than software that must be purchased and installed.
  • grep - Grep, a UNIX command and also a utility available for Windows and other operating systems, is used to search one or more files for a given character string or pattern and, if desired, replace the character string with another one.
  • grok - To grok (pronounced GRAHK) something is to understand something so well that it is fully absorbed into oneself.
  • GWX (Get Windows 10) - GWX (get Windows 10) is a Windows upgrade app that was initially installed after Windows update KB3035583; the app has been the subject of consumer complaints for manipulative design.
  • Handle to Registry Key (HKEY) - Handle to Registry Key (HKEY) is a typedef supplied in the Windows headers files.
  • hardware virtualization - Hardware virtualization, which is also known as server virtualization or simply virtualization, is the abstraction of computing resources from the software that uses those resources.
  • Hardy Heron (Ubuntu 8.04 LTS Server Edition) - Hardy Heron is the code name for version 8.
  • headless Android - Headless Android is a version of the Android operating system designed for embedded devices that lack user interfaces.
  • Host OS (host operating system) - A host OS is the software installed on a computer that interacts with the underlying hardware in a computer using virtualization technology.
  • hotfix - A hotfix is code (sometimes called a patch) that fixes a bug in a product.
  • HP-UX - HP-UX is the UNIX-based operating system for the HP 9000 series of business servers from Hewlett-Packard.
  • hypervisor - A hypervisor is a function which abstracts -- isolates -- operating systems and applications from the underlying computer hardware.
  • i5/OS - i5/OS is the name IBM has given to its newest release of OS/400 V5R3.
  • IBM i - IBM i is an operating system (OS) created to run on IBM’s Power Systems and Pure Systems for minicomputers and enterprise servers.
  • IBM Roadrunner - Roadrunner is the fastest supercomputer in the world, twice as fast as Blue Gene and six times as fast as any of the other current supercomputers.
  • ICM file (Image Color Matching file) - In Windows 95 and possibly other operating systems, an ICM (Image Color Matching) file contains a color system profile for a particular application or device such as a color printer or scanner.
  • iFCP (Internet Fibre Channel Protocol) - iFCP (Internet Fibre Channel Protocol) is an emerging standard for extending Fibre Channel storage networks across the Internet.
  • illumos - Illumos is a free, open source operating system (OS) developed as a fork of Unix-based OpenSolaris, the open source community-built derivative of the Solaris OS.
  • Information Kit: Linux, Unix, and All the Little ixes - Linux, Unix, and all the little ixes --The Unix versus Linux confusion.
  • INI - INI is a file name extension used in Microsoft Windows.
  • initial program load (IPL) - IPL (initial program load) is a mainframe term for the loading of the operating system into the computer's main memory.
  • initialization - Initialization is the process of locating and using the defined values for variable data that is used by a computer program.
  • inode - In a UNIX-based operating system, an inode is a computer-stored description of an individual file in a UNIX file system.
  • InstallAnywhere - InstallAnywhere is a program that can used by software developers to package a product written in Java so that it can be installed on any major operating system.
  • Installfest - An Installfest is a special occasion when computer users get together to help each other install new programming, usually the Linux operating system and related programs, often together with experts and the resources to download programming from the Internet.
  • integer overflow - Integer overflow is the result of trying to place into computer memory an integer (whole number) that is too large for the integer data type in a given system.
  • interpreted (script) - An interpreted program, sometimes called a script, is a program whose instructions are actually a logically sequenced series of operating system commands, handled one at a time by a command interpreter.
  • interprocess communication (IPC) - Interprocess communication (IPC) is a set of programming interfaces that allow a programmer to coordinate activities among different program processes that can run concurrently in an operating system.
  • interrupt - An interrupt is a signal from a device attached to a computer or from a program within the computer that causes the main program that operates the computer (the operating system) to stop and figure out what to do next.
  • IO.SYS - In the Windows 95 operating system, IO.
  • iOS 7 - iOS 7 is the seventh version of Apple’s proprietary mobile operating system for iPhone, iPad and iPodTouch.
  • iOS 8 - IOS 8 is the eighth version of Apple’s mobile operating system.
  • IoT OS (Internet of Things operating system) - An IoT OS is an operating system that is designed to perform within the constraints that are particular to Internet of Things devices, including restrictions on memory, size, power and processing capacity.
  • IRIX - IRIX is a UNIX -based operating system from SGI that is optimized for applications that use 3-D visualization and virtual reality environments.
  • ISPF (Interactive System Productivity Facility) - ISPF (Interactive System Productivity Facility) is the user interface and supporting programs that come with IBM's OS/390 operating system and that allow a company to configure and manage its system, add new system or application programs and test them.
  • IT systems management - Systems management is the administration of the information technology systems in an enterprise data center.
  • Jaguar - Jaguar was the code name for version 10.
  • Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) - The Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) is a collection of Java APIs owned by Oracle that software developers can use to write server-side applications.
  • JeOS (just enough operating system) - JeOS (just enough operating system) is a highly customized operating system built for a specific application.
  • job - In certain computer operating systems, a job is the unit of work that a computer operator gives to the operating system.
  • Job Entry Subsystem (JES) - Job Entry Subsystem (JES) is a subsystem of the OS/390 and MVS mainframe operating systems that manages 'jobs' (units of work) that the system does.
  • job scheduler - A job scheduler is a program that enables an enterprise to schedule and, in some cases, monitor computer 'batch' jobs (units of work, such as the running of a payroll program).
  • job step - In certain computer operating systems, a job step is part of a job, a unit of work that a computer operator (or a program called a job scheduler) gives to the operating system.
  • K Desktop Environment (KDE) - K Desktop Environment (KDE) is an Open Source graphical desktop environment for UNIX workstations.
  • kernel - The kernel is the essential center of a computer operating system (OS).
  • level of support (support level) - Level of support indicates a specific extent of technical assistance in the total range of assistance that is provided by an information technology product (such as a software product) to its customers.
  • lights-out management (LOM) - Lights-out management (LOM) is the ability for a system administrator to monitor and manage servers by remote control.
  • lightweight, middleweight, and heavyweight threads - In computer programming, a thread is an instance of a sequence of code that is operating as a unit, typically on behalf of a single user, transaction, or message.
  • Linspire (Lindows) - Linspire, formerly known as Lindows, is a low-cost commercial Linux-based operating system with a user interface similar to the latest Microsoft Windows operating system.
  • Linus Torvalds - Linus Torvalds, the creator of the Linux kernel, was born in Helsinki, Finland, on December 28, 1969.
  • Linux Mint - Linux Mint is a free and open source operating system (OS) distribution based on Ubuntu and Debian for use on x-86 x-64-compatible machines.
  • LiteOS - LiteOS is a lightweight, open source IoT device and smartphone OS from the Chinese smartphone manufacturer Huawei.
  • Litestep - Litestep is an alternative user interface (shell) for use with any Windows operating system (Windows 9x/NT).
  • loader - In a computer operating system, a loader is a component that locates a given program (which can be an application or, in some cases, part of the operating system itself) in offline storage (such as a hard disk), loads it into main storage (in a personal computer, it's called random access memory), and gives that program control of the computer (allows it to execute its instruction s).
  • lock - A lock is a mechanism for controlling access to something.
  • logical partition (LPAR) - A logical partition (LPAR) is the division of a computer's processor s, memory, and storage into multiple sets of resources so that each set of resources can be operated independently with its own operating system instance and application s.
  • Mac OS - Mac OS is the computer operating system for Apple Computer's Macintosh line of personal computers and workstations.
  • Mac OS X Lion - Mac OS X Lion is the eighth upgrade of Mac OS X, the current operating system for Apple computers.
  • Maemo (Nokia Maemo) - Maemo is a Linux-based operating system and mobile platform from the Finnish communications and information technology corporation, Nokia.
  • man page - A man page in a Linux or other Unix-based operating system is an online description of an interactive shell command or other system interface or object.
  • Master Boot Record (MBR) - The Master Boot Record (MBR) is the information in the first sector of any hard disk or diskette that identifies how and where an operating system is located so that it can be boot (loaded) into the computer's main storage or random access memory.
  • memory leak - A memory leak is the gradual loss of available computer memory when a program (an application or part of the operating system) repeatedly fails to return memory that it has obtained for temporary use.
  • metafile - A metafile is a file containing information that describes or specifies another file.
  • Microsoft - Microsoft is a leading global vendor of computer software; hardware for computer, mobile and gaming systems; and cloud services.
  • Microsoft Windows 10 Continuum - Microsoft Windows 10 Continuum is a feature that adapts the Windows operating system to the form factor that's being used.
  • Microsoft Windows 8.1 - Microsoft Windows 8.
  • Microsoft Windows Hello - Microsoft Windows Hello is a Windows 10 authentication feature that allows users to access compatible hardware devices without a password.
  • Microsoft Windows Recovery Environment (Windows RE) - The Microsoft Windows Recovery Environment, or Windows RE, is a simplified, scaled-back version of the Windows operating system that is used to boot the system when Windows 8.
  • Microsoft Windows Server 2012 R2 - Windows Server 2012 R2 is the second iteration of Windows Server 2012.
  • Microsoft Windows Server 2016 - Microsoft Windows Server 2016, previously referred to as Windows Server vNext, is a server operating system (OS).
  • Minix - Minux (sometimes spelled MINIX) is an open source operating system with a user interface similar to that of Unix.
  • MinWin - MinWin is the lowest level of the Windows operating system.
  • mobile device fragmentation - Mobile device fragmentation is a phenomenon that occurs when some mobile users are running older versions of an operating system, while other users are running newer versions.
  • Moblin - Moblin is a Linux-based platform that is optimized for small computing devices.
  • Motif - Motif is a graphical user interface (GUI) guideline and development toolkit for the X Window System.
  • MPE/iX - MPE/iX is the operating system for the line of e3000 midrange business servers from Hewlett-Packard (HP).
  • MPP (massively parallel processing) - MPP (massively parallel processing) is the coordinated processing of a program by multiple processors that work on different parts of the program, with each processor using its own operating system and memory.
  • MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System) - MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System) was the Microsoft-marketed version of the first widely-installed operating system in personal computers.
  • Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) - Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) was a mainframe time-sharing operating system that was developed in the 1963-1969 period through the collaboration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), General Electric (GE), and Bell.
  • multitasking - Multitasking, in an operating system, is allowing a user to perform more than one computer task (such as the operation of an application program) at a time.
  • MULTOS (Multiple Operating System) - MULTOS (which stands for "Multiple Operating System") is an operating system that allows multiple application programs to be installed and to reside separately and securely on a smart card.
  • MVS (Multiple Virtual Storage) - MVS (Multiple Virtual Storage) is IBM's best-known operating system for mainframe and large server computers.
  • Nagios - Nagios is an open source monitoring system for computer systems.
  • netfilter - Netfilter is a utility in Linux 2.
  • netstat - Netstat is a common command line TCP/IP networking utility available in most versions of Windows, Linux, UNIX and other operating systems.
  • NetWare - NetWare, made by Novell, is a widely-installed network server operating system.
  • NTFS (NT file system; sometimes New Technology File System) - NTFS (NT file system; sometimes New Technology File System) is the file system that the Windows NT operating system uses for storing and retrieving files on a hard disk.
  • Open Handset Alliance (OHA) - The Open Handset Alliance (OHA) is a coalition of more than 30 technology and mobile companies that introduced Android, an open source mobile phone operating system.
  • Open Source Development Labs (OSDL) - Open Source Development Labs (OSDL) is a nonprofit corporation founded by IBM, Intel, and Computer Associates to support Linux developers and users.
  • open system - In a computing context, an open system is an open source operating system, typically composed of coordinated modular components from a number of sources and not reliant upon any proprietary elements.
  • OpenBSD - OpenBSD is a free open source operating system based upon the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) for UNIX.
  • OpenVMS - OpenVMS is an operating system from the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) that runs in both its VAX and Alpha computers.
  • operating system (OS) - An operating system (OS) is the program that, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, manages all of the other application programs in a computer.
  • OS X - OS X is version 10 of the Apple Macintosh operating system.
  • OS-9 - OS-9 is a real-time operating system (RTOS) from Microware Systems that is intended especially for embedded applications.

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    VRAM (video RAM) is a reference to any type of random access memory (RAM) used to store image data for a computer display.

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