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Programming

Definitions related to software programming, including tech terms about programming languages and words and phrases about software design, coding, testing and debugging.

3-T - BRO

  • 3-tier application architecture - A 3-tier application architecture is a modular client-server architecture that consists of a presentation tier, an application tier and a data tier.
  • A Symphony of Lights - A Symphony of Lights is a multimedia event in Hong Kong featuring a spectacular lighting display synchronized to orchestral music.
  • ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming) - ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming) is the primary programming language supported on the SAP NetWeaver ABAP application server platform and applications that run on it, such as SAP ERP (formerly R/3), S/4HANA and CRM.
  • ABAP Objects - In the R/3 product from the German software company, SAP, ABAP Objects is a programming language and part of the ABAP Workbench that allows developers to create and run applications that contain program objects.
  • ABAP Workbench - ABAP Workbench is a set of programs for developing enterprise resource management (ERM) applications that run in the R/3 subsystem from SAP.
  • abend (abnormal end) - An abend (a combining of two words, abnormal end, when operator messages were as short as possible) is an abnormal, rather than planned, end or termination of a computer program because of some problem with how it is running.
  • absolute link - An absolute link is a hyperlink containing a full URL, which includes all the information needed to find a particular site, page or document or other addressable item on the Internet.
  • abstract class - In Java and other object oriented programming (OOP) languages, objects and classes (categories of objects) may be abstracted, which means that they are summarized into characteristics that are relevant to the current program’s operation.
  • Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) - Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) is a set of application program interfaces (APIs) used by Java programmers to create graphical user interface (GUI) objects, such as buttons, scroll bars, and windows.
  • abstraction - Abstraction (from the Latin abs, meaning away from and trahere, meaning to draw) is the process of taking away or removing characteristics from something in order to reduce it to a set of essential characteristics.
  • acceptance testing - An acceptance test confirms that an story is complete by matching a user action scenario with a desired outcome.
  • access method - In computing, an access method is a program or a hardware mechanism that moves data between the computer and an outlying device such as a hard disk (or other form of storage) or a display terminal.
  • accessibility testing - Accessibility testing is a type of systems testing designed to determine whether individuals with disabilities will be able to use the system in question, which could be software, hardware, or some other type of system.
  • ActionScript - ActionScript is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language that is designed specifically for Web site animation.
  • Active Server Page (ASP) - ASP is also an abbreviation for application service provider.
  • Active Template Library (ATL) - Active Template Library (ATL), formerly called ActiveX Template Library) is a Microsoft program library (set of prepackaged program routines) for use when creating Active Server Page (ASP) code and other ActiveX program components with C++ (including Visual C++).
  • ActiveX - ActiveX is a set of object-oriented programming technologies Microsoft developed for Internet Explorer to facilitate rich media playback.
  • ActiveX control - An ActiveX control is a component program object that can be re-used by many application programs within a computer or among computers in a network.
  • ad hoc test - An ad hoc test is an unplanned and undocumented procedure designed to assess the viability of a product.
  • ad hoc testing - Ad hoc testing is a non-methodical approach to assessing the viability of a product.
  • Ada - Ada (pronounced AY-duh) is a programming language somewhat similar to Pascal that was selected in a competition and made a U.
  • Ada Lovelace (Augusta Ada King) - Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace, was an English mathematician who is credited with being the first computer programmer.
  • address space - Address space is the amount of memory allocated for all possible addresses for a computational entity, such as a device, a file, a server, or a networked computer.
  • Adobe AIR - Adobe AIR is a developer's tool for creating platform-independent web applications that can be run on a user's desktop.
  • Agile Software Development - In software application development, Agile is a methodology that anticipates the need for flexibility and applies a level of pragmatism into the delivery of the finished product.
  • agile test automation pyramid - The agile test automation pyramid is a graphical strategy guide for implementing automated software testing.
  • aglet (agile applet) - In computer technology, an aglet (or "agile applet") is a small application program or applet with the capability to serve as a mobile agent of services in a computer network.
  • agnostic - Agnostic, in an information technology (IT) context, refers to something that is generalized so that it is interoperable among various systems.
  • Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) - Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a method of building interactive applications for the Web that process user requests immediately.
  • algorithm - An algorithm (pronounced AL-go-rith-um) is a procedure or formula for solving a problem, based on conducting a sequence of specified actions.
  • alphanumeric (alphameric) - Alphanumeric, also referred to as alphameric, is a term that encompasses all of the letters and numerals in a given language set.
  • alt text (alternative text) - Alt text (alternative text) is a word or phrase that can be inserted as an attribute in an HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) document to tell Web site viewers the nature or contents of an image.
  • Amdahl's law - In computer programming, Amdahl's law is that, in a program with parallel processing, a relatively few instructions that have to be performed in sequence will have a limiting factor on program speedup such that adding more processors may not make the program run faster.
  • AMIBIOS (AMI BIOS) - AMIBIOS is one of the original brands of basic input/output system (BIOS) chip and is probably the most commonly installed BIOS chip in today's personal computers.
  • anchor - In Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), an anchor is the establishing of a term, phrase, image, or other information object as being either: The target of a hypertext link within a document, or A reference (a link you can select) to such a target Note that any HTML file name is automatically an anchor or target that can be linked to.
  • Ant - Ant is an open source build tool (a program for putting together all the pieces of a program) from the Apache Software Foundation.
  • antipattern - An antipattern is a frequently used, but largely ineffective solution to a problem.
  • Apache Lucene - Apache Lucene is a freely available information retrieval software library that works with fields of text within document files.
  • API gateway - An API gateway is programming that sits in front of an application programming interface (API) and acts as a single point of entry for a defined group of microservices.
  • APL (a programming language) - APL (A Programming Language) is a general-purpose, third-generation (3GL) programming language that allows certain data manipulations to be expressed with a special non-ASCII set of symbols, resulting in programs that are shorter than would be possible using most other languages.
  • APPC (Advanced Program-to-Program Communication or LU 6.2) - APPC (Advanced Program-to-Program Communication, sometimes called LU 6.
  • Apple Swift - Apple Swift is Apple's programming language for IOS, WatchOS, TVOS, MacOS and Linux.
  • AppleScript - AppleScript is a programming language that allows Macintosh users to automate repetitive tasks and to customize applications to suit specific needs.
  • Application Compatibility Toolkit (ACT) - Application Compatibility Toolkit (ACT) is a set of freely downloadable program utilities and related documents from Microsoft for ensuring compatibility among application programs in Windows operating systems, especially in a large network environment.
  • application lifecycle management (ALM) - Application lifecycle management (ALM) is the supervision of a software application from its initial planning through retirement.
  • Application Link Enabling (ALE) - Application Link Enabling (ALE) is a mechanism for the exchange of business data between loosely-coupled R/3 applications built by customers of SAP, the enterprise resource management program.
  • application program interface (API) - An application program interface (API) is code that allows two software programs to communicate with each other.
  • application security - Application security is the use of software, hardware, and procedural methods to protect applications from external threats.
  • ARAX (Asynchronous Ruby and XML) - ARAX (Asynchronous Ruby and XML) is a development tool created for Silverlight, Microsoft's competitor for Adobe Flash and similar Web technologies.
  • artificial neural network (ANN) - In information technology (IT), a neural network is a system of hardware and/or software patterned after the operation of neurons in the human brain.
  • aspect-oriented programming (AOP) - Aspect-oriented programming (AOP) is an approach to programming that allows global properties of a program to determine how it is compiled into an executable program.
  • assembler - An assembler is a program that takes basic computer instructions and converts them into a pattern of bits that the computer's processor can use to perform its basic operations.
  • assistive software (adaptive software) - Assistive software, also called adaptive software, refers to computer programs designed for specialized hardware used by physically challenged people.
  • atomic - In ancient philosophy, an atom was the ultimate unit of matter on which more complex views of material reality were based.
  • attribute - In general, an attribute is a property or characteristic.
  • authorized program analysis report (APAR) - An APAR (authorized program analysis report) is a term used in IBM for a description of a problem with an IBM program that is formally tracked until a solution is provided.
  • automated testing - Automated software testing is a process in which software tools execute pre-scripted tests on a software application before it is released into production.
  • awk - awk (also written as Awk and AWK) is a utility that enables a programmer to write tiny but effective programs in the form of statements that define text patterns that are to be searched for in each line of a document and the action that is to be taken when a match is found within a line.
  • AWS IoT Button - The AWS IoT Button is a programmable, Wi-Fi-enabled handheld device that allows developers to push a button to execute a variety of actions in the Amazon Web Services public cloud.
  • Azure Service Fabric - Azure Service Fabric is a Platform as a Service (PaaS) offering designed to facilitate the development, deployment and management of highly-scalable and customizable applications for the Microsoft Azure cloud platform.
  • backdoor (computing) - A backdoor is a means to access a computer system or encrypted data that bypasses the system's customary security mechanisms.
  • backslash - The backslash ( \ ) is a typographic and/or keyboard mark that is widely used in programming languages and other computing contexts.
  • backward mapping (inverse mapping or screen order) - Backward mapping (also known as inverse mapping or screen order) is a technique used in texture mapping to create a 2D image from 3D data.
  • baklava code - Baklava code is programming that is unnecessarily complicated by the inclusion of too many layers.
  • BAL (Basic Assembler Language or branch-and-link) - BAL (Basic Assembler Language) is a version of IBM's assembler language (sometimes called assembly language) for its System/360 and System/370 mainframe operating systems.
  • bar - In programming, bar is a metasyntactic variable that is used to temporarily represent a function.
  • bash (Bourne Again Shell) - Bash (Bourne Again Shell ) is the free version of the Bourne shell distributed with Linux and GNU operating systems.
  • BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) - BASIC was an early programming language that is still among the simplest and most popular of programming languages.
  • Bayesian logic - Named for Thomas Bayes, an English clergyman and mathematician, Bayesian logic is a branch of logic applied to decision making and inferential statistics that deals with probability inference: using the knowledge of prior events to predict future events.
  • Bayesian statistics - Bayesian statistics is a mathematical approach to calculating probability in which conclusions are subjective and updated as additional data is collected.
  • Bean - In its JavaBeans application program interface for writing a component, Sun Microsystems calls a component a "Bean" (thus continuing their coffee analogy).
  • binary coded decimal - Binary coded decimal (BCD) is a system of writing numerals that assigns a four-digit binary code to each digit 0 through 9 in a decimal (base-10) numeral.
  • binary file - A binary file is a file whose content must be interpreted by a program or a hardware processor that understands in advance exactly how it is formatted.
  • bind - In computer programming, to bind is to make an association between two or more programming objects or value items for some scope of time and place.
  • Bison - Bison is a program that converts the formal description of a computer language grammar into a C language program that can parse the syntax and symbols of that grammar into instructions that the computer can execute.
  • bitwise - Bitwise operations manipulate data at the bit level rather than with bytes or larger units of data, as is more common.
  • bitwise operator - Because they allow greater precision and require fewer resources, bitwise operators, which manipulate individual bits, can make some code faster and more efficient.
  • BizTalk - BizTalk is an industry initiative headed by Microsoft to promote Extensible Markup Language (XML) as the common data exchange language for e-commerce and application integration on the Internet.
  • black box (black box testing) - Black box testing assesses a system solely from the outside, without the operator or tester knowing what is happening within the system to generate responses to test actions.
  • bloatware - Bloatware is an unflattering name for unwanted pre-installed software applications on a new computer.
  • block - A block is a contiguous set of bits or bytes that forms an identifiable unit of data.
  • Blue Gene - Blue Gene is a supercomputer development project at IBM for a series of high-performance system-on-a-chip (SoC) arcitectures with minimal power demands.
  • blue/green deployment - A blue/green deployment is a software deployment strategy that relies on two identical production configurations that alternate between active and inactive.
  • boilerplate - In information technology, a boilerplate is a unit of writing that can be reused over and over without change.
  • Bongo - Bongo is a program that lets Java program developers build a graphical user interface (GUI) for their applications.
  • bookmarklet - A bookmarklet is a JavaScript applet that runs directly in the browser.
  • Boto - Boto is a software development kit (SDK) designed to improve the use of the Python programming language in Amazon Web Services.
  • BPEL (Business Process Execution Language) - BPEL (Business Process Execution Language) is an XML-based language that enables task-sharing in a distributed computing or grid computing environment.
  • BREW (Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless) - BREW (Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless) is Qualcomm's open source application development platform for wireless devices equipped for code division multiple access (CDMA) technology.
  • brogrammer - A brogrammer is a male programmer with traits often associated with fraternity brothers (bros) rather than the coder's stereotypical geek persona.

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