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Programming

Definitions related to software programming, including tech terms about programming languages and words and phrases about software design, coding, testing and debugging.

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  • iteration - In agile software development, an iteration is a single development cycle, usually measured as one week or two weeks.
  • iterative - Iterative (prounounced IT-ter-a-teev) is an adjective that means repetitious.
  • iterative development - Iterative development is a way of breaking down the software development of a large application into smaller chunks.
  • J2ME (Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition) - J2ME (Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition) is a technology that allows programmers to use the Java programming language and related tools to develop programs for mobile wireless information devices such as cellular phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs).
  • JAD (Joint Application Development) - JAD (Joint Application Development) is a methodology that involves the client or end user in the design and development of an application, through a succession of collaborative workshops called JAD sessions.
  • Jargon File (New Hacker's Dictionary) - The Jargon File is a compilation of computer-related slang that was first developed in 1975 by Raphael Finkel at Stanford University from sources including the Stanford and MIT AI Labs, Carnegie Mellon University and Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
  • Java - Java is a widely used programming language expressly designed for use in the distributed environment of the internet.
  • Java abstract class - In Java and other object oriented programming (OOP) languages, objects and classes may be abstracted, which means that they are summarized into characteristics that are relevant to the current program’s operation.
  • Java annotations - Within the Java development kit (JDK), there are simple annotations used to make comments on code, as well as meta-annotations that can be used to create annotations within annotation-type declarations.
  • Java assert - The Java assert is a mechanism used primarily in nonproduction environments to test for extraordinary conditions that will never be encountered unless a bug exists somewhere in the code.
  • Java BufferedReader - Java BufferedReader is a public Java class that allows large volumes to be read from disk and copied to much faster RAM to increase performance over the multiple network communications or disk reads done with each read command otherwise.
  • Java Card - Java Card is an open standard from Sun Microsystems for a smart card development platform.
  • Java Champion - The Java Champion designation is awarded to leaders and visionaries in the Java technology community.
  • Java Comparator - Java Comparator can compare objects to return an integer based on a positive, equal or negative comparison.
  • Java compiler - Generally, Java compilers are run and pointed to a programmer’s code in a text file to produce a class file for use by the Java virtual machine (JVM) on different platforms.
  • Java container - In Sun Microsystems' JavaBeans component architecture and in Microsoft's Component Object Model (COM), a container is an application program or subsystem in which the program building block known as a component is run.
  • Java Data Objects (JDO) - Java Data Objects (JDO) is an application program interface (API) that enables a Java programmer to access a database implicitly - that is, without having to make explicit Structured Query Language (SQL) statements.
  • Java Development Kit (JDK) - The Java Development Kit (JDK) provides the foundation upon which all applications that are targeted toward the Java platform are built.
  • Java Foundation Classes (JFC) - Using the Java programming language, Java Foundation Classes (JFC) are pre-written code in the form of class libraries (coded routines) that give the programmer a comprehensive set of graphical user interface (GUI) routines to use.
  • Java IDE - Java IDEs typically provide language-specific features in addition to the code editor, compiler and debugger generally found in all IDEs.
  • Java keyword - Java keywords are terms that have special meaning in Java programming and cannot be used as identifiers for variables, classes or other elements within a Java program.
  • Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) - The Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) is a collection of Java APIs owned by Oracle that software developers can use to write server-side applications.
  • Java Runtime Environment (JRE) - The Java Runtime Environment (JRE), also known as Java Runtime, is the part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) that contains and orchestrates the set of tools and minimum requirements for executing a Java application.
  • Java string - Strings, in Java, are immutable sequences of Unicode characters.
  • Java virtual machine (JVM) - A Java virtual machine (JVM), an implementation of the Java Virtual Machine Specification, interprets compiled Java binary code (called bytecode) for a computer's processor (or "hardware platform") so that it can perform a Java program's instructions.
  • JavaBeans - JavaBeans is an object-oriented programming interface from Sun Microsystems that lets you build re-useable applications or program building blocks called components that can be deployed in a network on any major operating system platform.
  • JavaFX - JavaFX is a software development platform for the creation of both desktop aps and rich internet applications (RIAs) that can run on various devices.
  • JavaScript - JavaScript is a programming language that started off simply as a mechanism to add logic and interactivity to an otherwise static Netscape browser.
  • JavaScript hijacking - JavaScript hijacking is a technique that an attacker can use to read sensitive data from a vulnerable Web application, particularly one using Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML).
  • JAX-WS (Java API for XML Web Services) - Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS) is one of a set of Java technologies used to develop Web services.
  • JCL (job control language) - JCL (job control language) is a language for describing jobs (units of work) to the MVS, OS/390, and VSE operating systems, which run on IBM's S/390 large server (mainframe) computers.
  • JDBC Connector (Java Database Connectivity Connector) - The JDBC (Java Database Connectivity) Connector is a program that enables various databases to be accessed by Java application servers that are run on the Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) from Sun Microsystems.
  • Jenkins - Jenkins is an open source continuous integration/continuous delivery and deployment (CI/CD) automation software DevOps tool written in the Java programming language.
  • JHTML (Java within Hypertext Markup Language) - JHTML (Java within Hypertext Markup Language) is a standard for including a Java program as part of a Web page (a page written using the Hypertext Markup Language, or HTML).
  • Jikes - Jikes is an open source Java compiler from IBM that adheres strictly to the Java specification and promises an "extremely fast" compilation.
  • JMX (Java Management Extensions) - JMX (Java Management Extensions) is a set of specifications for application and network management in the J2EE development and application environment.
  • JNDI (Java Naming and Directory Interface) - JNDI (Java Naming and Directory Interface) enables Java platform-based applications to access multiple naming and directory services.
  • job - In certain computer operating systems, a job is the unit of work that a computer operator gives to the operating system.
  • job scheduler - A job scheduler is a program that enables an enterprise to schedule and, in some cases, monitor computer 'batch' jobs (units of work, such as the running of a payroll program).
  • John von Neumann - John von Neumann was the scientist who conceived a fundamental idea that serves all modern computers - that a computer's program and the data that it processes do not have to be fed into the computer while it is working, but can be kept in the computer's memory - a notion generally referred to as the stored-program computer.
  • JOLAP (Java Online Analytical Processing) - JOLAP (Java Online Analytical Processing) is a Java application-programming interface (API) for the Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) environment that supports the creation, storage, access, and management of data in an online analytical processing (OLAP) application.
  • JRun - JRun is an application server from Macromedia that is based on Sun Microsystems' Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE).
  • JSON (Javascript Object Notation) - JSON (JS Object Notation) is a text-based, human-readable data interchange format used for representing simple data structures and objects in Web browser-based code.
  • JTAPI (Java Telephony Application Programming Interface) - JTAPI (Java Telephony Application Programming Interface) is a Java-based application programming interface (API) for computer telephony applications.
  • just-in-time compiler (JIT) - A just-in-time (JIT) compiler is a program that turns bytecode into instructions that can be sent directly to a computer's processor (CPU).
  • Jython - Jython is an open source implementation of the Python programming language, integrated with the Java platform.
  • Kaizen (continuous improvement) - Kaizen is an approach to creating continuous improvement based on the idea that small, ongoing positive changes can reap significant improvements.
  • Karnaugh map (K-map) - A Karnaugh map (K-map) is a pictorial method used to minimize Boolean expressions without having to use Boolean algebra theorems and equation manipulations.
  • Kebab case - Kebab case -- or kebab-case -- is a programming variable naming convention where a developer replaces the spaces between words with a dash.
  • key-value pair (KVP) - A key-value pair (KVP) is a set of two linked data items: a key, which is a unique identifier for some item of data, and the value, which is either the data that is identified or a pointer to the location of that data.
  • Keyhole Markup Language (KML) - Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is an XML-based markup language designed to annotate and overlay visualizations on various two-dimensional, Web-based online maps or three-dimensional Earth browsers (such as Google Earth).
  • KLOC (thousands of lines of code) - KLOC (thousands of lines of code) is a traditional measure of how large a computer program is or how long or how many people it will take to write it.
  • knowledge engineering - Knowledge engineering is a field of artificial intelligence (AI) that tries to emulate the judgment and behavior of a human expert in a given field.
  • Kotlin - Kotlin is a static type, object-oriented programing (OOP) language that is interoperable with the Java virtual machine, Java libraries and Android.
  • LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) - LAMP is an open source Web development platform that uses Linux as the operating system, Apache as the Web server, MySQL as the relational database management system and PHP as the object-oriented scripting language.
  • Language Workbench - A Language Workbench (LWB) is a development toolset that facilitates the development and editing of domain specific languages (DSLs).
  • language-oriented programming (LOP) - Language-oriented programming (LOP) is an approach to software development that focuses on the use of domain specific languages (DSLs) to solve problems within various domains in a system or application.
  • layer - In computer programming, layering is the organization of programming into separate functional components that interact in some sequential and hierarchical way, with each layer usually having an interface only to the layer above it and the layer below it.
  • lazy loading (dynamic function loading) - Lazy loading, also known as dynamic function loading, is a mode that allows a developer to specify what components of a program should not be loaded into storage by default when a program is started.
  • lean software development - Lean software development is a concept that emphasizes optimizing efficiency and minimizing waste in the development of software.
  • lexical scoping (static scoping) - Lexical scoping (sometimes known as static scoping) is a convention used with many programming languages that sets the scope (range of functionality) of a variable so that it may only be called (referenced) from within the block of code in which it is defined.
  • lightweight - In information technology, the term lightweight is sometimes applied to a program, protocol, device, or anything that is relatively simpler or faster or that has fewer parts than something else.
  • LINQ (Language Integrated Query) - LINQ (Language Integrated Query) is a Microsoft programming model and methodology that essentially adds formal query capabilities into Microsoft .
  • LISP (list processing) - LISP, an acronym for list processing, is a programming language that was designed for easy manipulation of data strings.
  • living documentation - Living documentation is a dynamic method of system documentation that provides information that is current, accurate and easy to understand.
  • load testing - Load testing is the process of subjecting a computer, peripheral, server, network or application to a work level approaching the limits of its specifications.
  • logical AND symbol - For a practical application, see logic gate.
  • logical OR symbol - For a practical application, see logic gate.
  • loop - In computer programming, a loop is a sequence of instructions that is continually repeated until a certain condition is reached.
  • LotusScript - LotusScript is a script language for use in a Lotus Notes client program or as a scheduled agent within a Domino server program.
  • machine code (machine language) - Machine code, also known as machine language, is the elemental language of computers.
  • machine learning - Machine learning (ML) is a type of artificial intelligence (AI) that allows software applications to become more accurate at predicting outcomes without being explicitly programmed to do so.
  • macro - In Microsoft Word and other programs, a macro is a saved sequence of commands or keyboard strokes that can be stored and then recalled with a single command or keyboard stroke.
  • MapReduce - MapReduce is a core component of the Apache Hadoop software framework.
  • markup - Markup refers to the sequence of characters or other symbols that you insert at certain places in a text or word processing file to indicate how the file should look when it is printed or displayed or to describe the document's logical structure.
  • marshalling - Originally, to marshall was to tend horses or to arrange things in preparation for a feast.
  • massive open online course (MOOC) - A massive open online course (MOOC) is a free web-based distance learning program that is designed for large numbers of geographically dispersed students.
  • MATLAB - MATLAB is a fourth-generation programming language and numerical analysis environment used for matrix calculations, developing and running algorithms, creating user interfaces (UI) and data visualization as well as other functions.
  • MBean (managed bean) - In the Java programming language, an MBean (managed bean) is a Java object that represents a manageable resource, such as an application, a service, a component, or a device.
  • memory dump - A memory dump is the process of taking all information content in RAM and writing it to a storage drive.
  • memory management - Memory management is the process of controlling and coordinating computer memory, assigning portions called blocks to various running programs to optimize overall system performance.
  • message passing interface (MPI) - The message passing interface (MPI) is a standardized means of exchanging messages between multiple computers running a parallel program across distributed memory.
  • message queueing - In programming, message queueing is a method by which process (or program instances) can exchange or pass data using an interface to a system-managed queue of messages.
  • meta - Metadata is a description of data.
  • method - In object-oriented programming, a method is a programmed procedure that is defined as part of a class and included in any object of that class.
  • mickey - The mickey, in a computing context, is a unit for the smallest detectable movement of a mouse.
  • Micronaut framework - Micronaut is an open source JVM-based software framework for building lightweight, modular applications and microservices.
  • micropayment - A micropayment is an e-commerce transaction involving a very small sum of money in exchange for something made available online, such as an application download, a service or Web-based content.
  • microservice architecture (MSA) - A microservice architecture (MSA) is a logical structure for the design of a software program involving loosely-coupled modular components known as microservices.
  • Microsoft Foundation Class Library (MFC Library) - The Microsoft Foundation Class (MFC) Library is a collection of class es (generalized definitions used in object-oriented programming) that can be used in building application program s.
  • Microsoft Quantum Development Kit - The Microsoft Quantum Development Kit is a set of programming tools for writing code that will run on a quantum computer.
  • middleware - Middleware is software that is used to bridge the gap between applications and other tools or databases.
  • minify - Code minification (to minify) is the removal of unnecessary characters from programming code.
  • MIT License (X11 license or MIT X license) - The MIT License (also known as the X11 license or MITX license) is a software license that was originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  • mnemonic - In general, a mnemonic (from Greek mnemon or mindful; pronounced neh-MAHN-ik) is a memory aid, such as an abbreviation, rhyme or mental image that helps to remember something.
  • mobile UI (mobile user interface) - A mobile UI is the user interface on a mobile device, usually including a touch screen display and all the other elements of the device that allow the user to interact with it.
  • model-view-controller (MVC) - In object-oriented programming development, model-view-controller (MVC) is the name of a methodology or design pattern for successfully and efficiently relating the user interface to underlying data models.
  • Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) - Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) is a software design pattern that is structured to separate program logic and user interface controls.
  • module - A module is a separate unit of software or hardware.
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    OPSEC (operations security) is a security and risk management process and strategy that classifies information, then determines ...

  • smart contract

    A smart contract is a decentralized application that executes business logic in response to events.

  • compliance risk

    Compliance risk is an organization's potential exposure to legal penalties, financial forfeiture and material loss, resulting ...

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  • security token

    A security token is a physical or digital device that provides two-factor authentication for a user to prove their identity in a ...

  • hardware security module (HSM)

    A hardware security module (HSM) is a physical device that provides extra security for sensitive data.

  • buffer overflow

    A buffer overflow occurs when a program or process attempts to write more data to a fixed-length block of memory, or buffer, than...

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    Risk mitigation is a strategy to prepare for and lessen the effects of threats faced by a business.

  • change control

    Change control is a systematic approach to managing all changes made to a product or system.

  • disaster recovery (DR)

    Disaster recovery (DR) is an organization's ability to respond to and recover from an event that affects business operations.

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  • What is RAID 6?

    RAID 6, also known as double-parity RAID, uses two parity stripes on each disk. It allows for two disk failures within the RAID ...

  • PCIe SSD (PCIe solid-state drive)

    A PCIe SSD (PCIe solid-state drive) is a high-speed expansion card that attaches a computer to its peripherals.

  • VRAM (video RAM)

    VRAM (video RAM) refers to any type of random access memory (RAM) specifically used to store image data for a computer display.

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