Browse Definitions :

Programming

Definitions related to software programming, including tech terms about programming languages and words and phrases about software design, coding, testing and debugging.

JOB - NET

  • job - In certain computer operating systems, a job is the unit of work that a computer operator gives to the operating system.
  • job scheduler - A job scheduler is a program that enables an enterprise to schedule and, in some cases, monitor computer 'batch' jobs (units of work, such as the running of a payroll program).
  • job step - In certain computer operating systems, a job step is part of a job, a unit of work that a computer operator (or a program called a job scheduler) gives to the operating system.
  • John von Neumann - John von Neumann was the scientist who conceived a fundamental idea that serves all modern computers - that a computer's program and the data that it processes do not have to be fed into the computer while it is working, but can be kept in the computer's memory - a notion generally referred to as the stored-program computer.
  • JOLAP (Java Online Analytical Processing) - JOLAP (Java Online Analytical Processing) is a Java application-programming interface (API) for the Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) environment that supports the creation, storage, access, and management of data in an online analytical processing (OLAP) application.
  • Joliet - Joliet is an extension to ISO 9660, the specification for the file system (including file names) for the content on a compact disc (CD); it allows file names up to 64 characters in length (including spaces) and the use of Unicode characters in file names (sometimes needed for internationalization).
  • JRun - JRun is an application server from Macromedia that is based on Sun Microsystems' Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE).
  • JScript - JScript is a script language from Microsoft that is expressly designed for use within Web pages.
  • JSML (Java Speech API Markup Language) - JSML also stands for JScript Markup Language.
  • JSON (Javascript Object Notation) - JSON (JS Object Notation) is a text-based, human-readable data interchange format used for representing simple data structures and objects in Web browser-based code.
  • JTAPI (Java Telephony Application Programming Interface) - JTAPI (Java Telephony Application Programming Interface) is a Java-based application programming interface (API) for computer telephony applications.
  • just-in-time compiler (JIT) - A just-in-time (JIT) compiler is a program that turns bytecode into instructions that can be sent directly to a computer's processor (CPU).
  • Jython - Jython is an open source implementation of the Python programming language, integrated with the Java platform.
  • K Desktop Environment (KDE) - K Desktop Environment (KDE) is an Open Source graphical desktop environment for UNIX workstations.
  • Kaizen (continuous improvement) - Kaizen is an approach to creating continuous improvement based on the idea that small, ongoing positive changes can reap significant improvements.
  • Karnaugh map (K-map) - A Karnaugh map (K-map) is a pictorial method used to minimize Boolean expressions without having to use Boolean algebra theorems and equation manipulations.
  • key-value pair (KVP) - A key-value pair (KVP) is a set of two linked data items: a key, which is a unique identifier for some item of data, and the value, which is either the data that is identified or a pointer to the location of that data.
  • Keyhole Markup Language (KML) - Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is an XML-based markup language designed to annotate and overlay visualizations on various two-dimensional, Web-based online maps or three-dimensional Earth browsers (such as Google Earth).
  • KISS Principle (Keep It Simple, Stupid) - The KISS Principle (Keep It Simple, Stupid) is self-descriptive and recognizes two things: 1.
  • KLOC (thousands of lines of code) - KLOC (thousands of lines of code) is a traditional measure of how large a computer program is or how long or how many people it will take to write it.
  • knowledge engineering - Knowledge engineering is a field of artificial intelligence (AI) that tries to emulate the judgment and behavior of a human expert in a given field.
  • Kotlin - Kotlin is a static type, object-oriented programing (OOP) language that is interoperable with the Java virtual machine, Java libraries and Android.
  • lambda calculus - Lambda calculus, considered to be the mathematical basis for programming language, is a calculus developed by Alonzo Church and Stephen Kleene in the 1930s to express all computable�functions.
  • LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) - LAMP is an open source Web development platform that uses Linux as the operating system, Apache as the Web server, MySQL as the relational database management system and PHP as the object-oriented scripting language.
  • Language Workbench - A Language Workbench (LWB) is a development toolset that facilitates the development and editing of domain specific languages (DSLs).
  • language-oriented programming (LOP) - Language-oriented programming (LOP) is an approach to software development that focuses on the use of domain specific languages (DSLs) to solve problems within various domains in a system or application.
  • LaTeX - LaT E X (pronounced "lah-TEKH" and alternatively denoted as LaTeX), is a programming language that is used for typesetting technical data.
  • layer - In computer programming, layering is the organization of programming into separate functional components that interact in some sequential and hierarchical way, with each layer usually having an interface only to the layer above it and the layer below it.
  • lazy loading (dynamic function loading) - Lazy loading, also known as dynamic function loading, is a mode that allows a developer to specify what components of a program should not be loaded into storage by default when a program is started.
  • lean software development - Lean software development is a concept that emphasizes optimizing efficiency and minimizing waste in the development of software.
  • level of support (support level) - Level of support indicates a specific extent of technical assistance in the total range of assistance that is provided by an information technology product (such as a software product) to its customers.
  • lexical scoping (static scoping) - Lexical scoping (sometimes known as static scoping) is a convention used with many programming languages that sets the scope (range of functionality) of a variable so that it may only be called (referenced) from within the block of code in which it is defined.
  • lightweight - In information technology, the term lightweight is sometimes applied to a program, protocol, device, or anything that is relatively simpler or faster or that has fewer parts than something else.
  • lightweight, middleweight, and heavyweight threads - In computer programming, a thread is an instance of a sequence of code that is operating as a unit, typically on behalf of a single user, transaction, or message.
  • Linpack benchmark - The Linpack benchmark is a method of measuring the floating point rate of execution of a computer by running a program that solves a system of linear equations.
  • LINQ (Language Integrated Query) - LINQ (Language Integrated Query) is a Microsoft programming model and methodology that essentially adds formal query capabilities into Microsoft .
  • LISP (list processing) - LISP, an acronym for list processing, is a programming language that was designed for easy manipulation of data strings.
  • living documentation - Living documentation is a dynamic method of system documentation that provides information that is current, accurate and easy to understand.
  • load testing - Load testing is the process of subjecting a computer, peripheral, server, network or application to a work level approaching the limits of its specifications.
  • lock - A lock is a mechanism for controlling access to something.
  • logical AND symbol - For a practical application, see logic gate.
  • logical OR symbol - For a practical application, see logic gate.
  • loop - In computer programming, a loop is a sequence of instructions that is continually repeated until a certain condition is reached.
  • LotusScript - LotusScript is a script language for use in a Lotus Notes client program or as a scheduled agent within a Domino server program.
  • machine code (machine language) - Machine code, also known as machine language, is the elemental language of computers.
  • machine learning (ML) - Machine learning (ML) is a category of algorithm that allows software applications to become more accurate in predicting outcomes without being explicitly programmed.
  • macro - In Microsoft Word and other programs, a macro is a saved sequence of commands or keyboard strokes that can be stored and then recalled with a single command or keyboard stroke.
  • make - Make is the oldest and best known build tool, a utility that allows a programmer to build or rebuild source code files into a new version of a program.
  • makefile - A makefile is used with the UNIX make utility to determine which portions of a program to compile.
  • man page - A man page in a Linux or other Unix-based operating system is an online description of an interactive shell command or other system interface or object.
  • MapReduce - MapReduce is a core component of the Apache Hadoop software framework.
  • markup - Markup refers to the sequence of characters or other symbols that you insert at certain places in a text or word processing file to indicate how the file should look when it is printed or displayed or to describe the document's logical structure.
  • marshalling - Originally, to marshall was to tend horses or to arrange things in preparation for a feast.
  • massive open online course (MOOC) - A massive open online course (MOOC) is a free Web-based educational offering that is designed to enable the participation of large numbers of geographically dispersed students.
  • MATLAB - MATLAB is a fourth-generation programming language and numerical analysis environment used for matrix calculations, developing and running algorithms, creating user interfaces (UI) and data visualization as well as other functions.
  • MBean (managed bean) - In the Java programming language, an MBean (managed bean) is a Java object that represents a manageable resource, such as an application, a service, a component, or a device.
  • memory dump - A memory dump is the process of taking all information content in RAM and writing it to a storage drive.
  • memory leak - A memory leak is the gradual loss of available computer memory when a program (an application or part of the operating system) repeatedly fails to return memory that it has obtained for temporary use.
  • memory management - Memory management is the process of controlling and coordinating computer memory, assigning portions called blocks to various running programs to optimize overall system performance.
  • mentoring service - A mentoring service is a company that provides professional counseling and advice for individuals and businesses for a fee.
  • message passing interface (MPI) - The message passing interface (MPI) is a standardized means of exchanging messages between multiple computers running a parallel program across distributed memory.
  • message queueing - In programming, message queueing is a method by which process (or program instances) can exchange or pass data using an interface to a system-managed queue of messages.
  • message-driven processing - Message-driven processing is an approach used within the client/server computing model in which a client (for example, your Web browser) sends a service request in the form of a specially-formatted message to a program that acts as a request broker, handling messages from many clients intended for many different server applications.
  • meta - Metadata is a description of data.
  • metasyntactic variable - In programming, a metasyntactic (which derives from meta and syntax) variable is a variable (a changeable value) that is used to temporarily represent a function.
  • method - In object-oriented programming, a method is a programmed procedure that is defined as part of a class and included in any object of that class.
  • metric - In software development, a metric (noun) is the measurement of a particular characteristic of a program's performance or efficiency.
  • mickey - The mickey, in a computing context, is a unit for the smallest detectable movement of a mouse.
  • microcode - Microcode is programming that is ordinarily not program-addressable but, unlike hardwired logic, is capable of being modified.
  • micropayment - A micropayment is an e-commerce transaction involving a very small sum of money in exchange for something made available online, such as an application download, a service or Web-based content.
  • microservice architecture (MSA) - A microservice architecture (MSA) is a logical structure for the design of a software program involving loosely-coupled modular components known as microservices.
  • Microsoft Foundation Class Library (MFC Library) - The Microsoft Foundation Class (MFC) Library is a collection of class es (generalized definitions used in object-oriented programming) that can be used in building application program s.
  • Microsoft Quantum Development Kit - The Microsoft Quantum Development Kit is a set of programming tools for writing code that will run on a quantum computer.
  • middleware - Middleware is software that is used to bridge the gap between applications and other tools or databases.
  • minify - Code minification (to minify) is the removal of unnecessary characters from programming code.
  • MIT License (X11 license or MIT X license) - The MIT License (also known as the X11 license or MITX license) is a software license that was originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  • mnemonic - In general, a mnemonic (from Greek mnemon or mindful; pronounced neh-MAHN-ik) is a memory aid, such as an abbreviation, rhyme or mental image that helps to remember something.
  • mobile UI (mobile user interface) - A mobile UI is the user interface on a mobile device, usually including a touch screen display and all the other elements of the device that allow the user to interact with it.
  • model-view-controller (MVC) - In object-oriented programming development, model-view-controller (MVC) is the name of a methodology or design pattern for successfully and efficiently relating the user interface to underlying data models.
  • Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) - Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) is a software design pattern that is structured to separate program logic and user interface controls.
  • module - A module is a separate unit of software or hardware.
  • monad - A monad is: 1) A type of functor used in category theory in mathematics.
  • moniker - In general, a moniker is a name or a nickname and, in the simplest terms, that is what it is in computer terminology as well.
  • monolithic - Monolithic, in information technology, means either very large or composed all in one piece, depending on the particular context.
  • monolithic architecture - A monolithic architecture is the traditional unified model for the design of a software program.
  • MOO - A MOO is an object -oriented MUD.
  • Moonlight - Moonlight is an open source implementation of Microsoft's Silverlight.
  • Morphis - Morphis is a Java -based open source wireless transcoding platform from Kargo, Inc.
  • MPP (massively parallel processing) - MPP (massively parallel processing) is the coordinated processing of a program by multiple processors that work on different parts of the program, with each processor using its own operating system and memory.
  • multiprocessing - Multiprocessing is the coordinated processing of programs by more than one computer processor.
  • multithreading - It is easy to confuse multithreading with multitasking or multiprogramming, which are somewhat different ideas.
  • mutex (mutual exclusion object) - In computer programming, a mutex (mutual exclusion object) is a program object that is created so that multiple program thread can take turns sharing the same resource, such as access to a file.
  • named pipe - In computer programming, a named pipe is a method for passing information from one computer process to other processes using a pipe or message holding place that is given a specific name.
  • native app - A native application is a software program that is developed for use on a particular platform or device.
  • native code - Native code is computer programming (code) that is compiled to run with a particular processor and its set of instructions.
  • natural language - In computing, natural language refers to a human language such as English, Russian, German, or Japanese as distinct from the typically artificial command or programming language with which one usually talks to a computer.
  • natural language processing (NLP) - Natural language processing (NLP) is the ability of a computer program to understand human language as it is spoken.
  • nested - In general, something that is nested is fully contained within something else of the same kind.

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