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Programming

Definitions related to software programming, including tech terms about programming languages and words and phrases about software design, coding, testing and debugging.

PIG - SQL

  • pigs and chickens - Pigs and chickens is an analogy used in the Scrum software development model to define the type of role an attendee can play at a daily scrum meeting.
  • pipe - In computer programming, especially in UNIX operating systems, a pipe is a technique for passing information from one program process to another.
  • PL/I - PL/I is a third-generation (3GL) programming language developed in the early 1960s as an alternative to assembler language (for low-level computer processing functions), COBOL (for large-scale business applications), and FORTRAN (for scientific and algorithmic applications).
  • PL/SQL (procedural language extension to Structured Query Language) - In Oracle database management, PL/SQL is a procedural language extension to Structured Query Language (SQL).
  • planning board - In agile software development, a planning board is used to track the progress of an project.
  • planning game - In agile software development, a planning game is a meeting attended by both IT and business teams that is focused on choosing stories for a release or iteration.
  • platform - In IT, a platform is any hardware or software used to host an application or service.
  • polled interrupt - In a computer, a polled interrupt is a specific type of I/O interrupt that notifies the part of the computer containing the I/O interface that a device is ready to be read or otherwise handled but does not indicate which device.
  • polyglot programming - Polyglot programming is the practice of writing code in multiple languages to capture additional functionality and efficiency not available in a single language.
  • polymorphism - In object-oriented programming, polymorphism (from the Greek meaning "having multiple forms") is the characteristic of being able to assign a different meaning or usage to something in different contexts - specifically, to allow an entity such as a variable, a function, or an object to have more than one form.
  • polynomial interpolation - Polynomial interpolation is a method of estimating values between known data points.
  • portability - Portability is a characteristic attributed to a computer program if it can be used in an operating systems other than the one in which it was created without requiring major rework.
  • Postscript - Postscript is a programming language that describes the appearance of a printed page.
  • PowerBuilder - PowerBuilder is a popular rapid application development (RAD) tool for buildingobject-oriented programmingclient/serverapplications the parts of which can bedistributedwithin a network.
  • PowerShell - PowerShell is an object-oriented automation engine and scripting language with an interactive command-line shell that Microsoft developed to help IT professionals configure systems and automate administrative tasks.
  • prettyprint - Prettyprint is the process of converting and presenting source code or other objects in a legible and attractive way.
  • primitive - In computer programming, a primitive (pronounced PRIH-muh-teev) is a basic interface or segment of code that can be used to build more sophisticated program elements or interfaces.
  • principle of least privilege (POLP) - The principle of least privilege (POLP) is a concept in computer security that limits users' access rights to only what are strictly required to do their jobs.
  • product backlog grooming - Product backlog grooming is an Agile software development process in which the development team revisits a pre-defined product backlog, working with stakeholders to prioritize and break the backlog list into user stories for future use.
  • product owner - A product owner is a role on a Scrum team that is accountable for the project's outcome.
  • product-agnostic - Product-agnostic is a description of something that is not associated with a particular commercial product -- such as a specific device or application -- or something that is interoperable with all products of a given type.
  • program - In computing, a program is a specific set of ordered operations for a computer to perform.
  • program counter - A program counter is a register in a computer processor that contains the address (location) of the instruction being executed at the current time.
  • programming language generations - In the computer industry, these abbreviations are widely used to represent major steps or "generations" in the evolution of programming languages.
  • project management - Project management is the discipline of using established principles, procedures and policies to successfully guide a project from conception through completion.
  • Project planning: What is it and 5 steps to create a plan - Project planning is a discipline addressing how to complete a project in a certain timeframe, usually with defined stages and designated resources.
  • protected mode - Protected mode is a mode of program operation in a computer with an Intel-based microprocessor in which the program is restricted to addressing a specific contiguous area of 640 kilobytes.
  • prototype - In software development, a prototype is a rudimentary working model of a product or information system, usually built for demonstration purposes or as part of the development process.
  • pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) - A pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) is a program written for, and used in, probability and statistics applications when large quantities of random digits are needed.
  • pseudocode - Pseudocode (pronounced SOO-doh-kohd) is a detailed yet readable description of what a computer program or algorithm must do, expressed in a formally-styled natural language rather than in a programming language.
  • Python - Python is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted object-oriented programming language.
  • quality - In an information technology product or service, quality is sometimes defined as "meeting the requirements of the customer.
  • quality assurance (QA) - Quality assurance (QA) is any systematic process of determining whether a product or service meets specified requirements.
  • race condition - A race condition is an undesirable situation that occurs when a device or system attempts to perform two or more operations at the same time, but because of the nature of the device or system, the operations must be done in the proper sequence to be done correctly.
  • random numbers - Random numbers are numbers that occur in a sequence such that two conditions are met: ( the values are uniformly distributed over a defined interval or set, and (2) it is impossible to predict future values based on past or present ones.
  • rapid application development (RAD) - Rapid application development (RAD) is a model based on the concept that higher-quality products can be developed faster through more expedient processes, such as early prototyping, reusing software components and less formality in team communications.
  • rapid mobile app development (RMAD) - Rapid mobile application development (RMAD) uses low-code/no-code programming tools to speed the process of application creation for mobile platforms.
  • Rational Rose - Rational Rose, is a object-oriented Unified Modeling Language (UML) software design tool intended for visual modeling and component construction of enterprise-level software applications.
  • Rational Unified Process (RUP) - Rational Unified Process (RUP) is an object-oriented and Web-enabled program development methodology.
  • reactive programming - Reactive programming describes a design paradigm that relies on asynchronous programming logic to handle real-time updates to otherwise static content.
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) - Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) is a distribution of the Linux operating system developed for the business market.
  • refactoring - Refactoring is the process of restructuring code, while not changing its original functionality.
  • refresh rate - The refresh rate is the number of times a display's image is repainted or refreshed per second.
  • register (processor register, CPU register) - A processor register is one of a small set of data holding places that are part of the computer processor.
  • regression testing - Regression testing is a type of software test that assesses if changes to an application, or other related software components, introduce defects.
  • regular expression (regex) - A regular expression (sometimes abbreviated to "regex") is a way for a computer user or programmer to express how a computer program should look for a specified pattern in text and then what the program is to do when each pattern match is found.
  • RELAX NG (RELAX Next Generation) - RELAX NG (RELAX Next Generation) is a deliberately simple and straightforward XML markup language for metadocument data, aka schemas, developed in response to the W3C XML Schema standard.
  • release - A release is the distribution of the final version of an application.
  • release management - Release management is a software engineering process intended to oversee the development, testing, deployment and support of software releases.
  • release plan - In agile software development, a release plan is an evolving flowchart that describes which features will be delivered in upcoming releases.
  • reliability - Reliability is an attribute of any computer-related component (software, or hardware, or a network, for example) that consistently performs according to its specifications.
  • Remote Method Invocation (RMI) - RMI (Remote Method Invocation) is a way that a programmer, using the Java programming language and development environment, can write object-oriented programming in which objects on different computers can interact in a distributed network.
  • Remote Procedure Call (RPC) - Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is a protocol that one program can use to request a service from a program located in another computer on a network without having to understand the network's details.
  • reparse point - A reparse point is an object in a file system with attributes that activate extended functionality.
  • Report Program Generator (RPG) - RPG (Report Program Generator) is a programming language that originated as a report-building program used in DEC and IBM minicomputer operating systems and evolved into a fully procedural programming language.
  • rescoring - Rescoring is an Agile software development process in which the development team revisits a pre-defined list of user stories to review story point scores and adjust them up or down based on what the team has learned in previous development iterations.
  • reverse-engineering - Reverse-engineering is the act of dismantling an object to see how it works.
  • RFM analysis (recency, frequency, monetary) - RFM analysis is a marketing technique used to quantitatively rank and group customers based on the recency, frequency and monetary total of their recent transactions to identify the best customers and perform targeted marketing campaigns.
  • rollover - In creating page for a Web site, a rollover (some people call it a "mouseover") is a technique using JavaScript that lets you change a page element (usuallly a graphic image) when the user rolls the mouse over something on the page (like a line of text or a graphic image).
  • ROM emulation - ROM emulation is the process of copying data from a ROM (read-only memory) chip to a storage medium such as a hard disk or flash memory.
  • rounding error - Rounding error is the difference between a rounded-off numerical value and the actual value.
  • routine - In computer programming, routine and subroutine are general and nearly synonymous terms for any sequence of code that is intended to be called and used repeatedly during the executable of a program.
  • Ruby - Ruby is an open source, interpreted, object-oriented programming language created by Yukihiro Matsumoto, who chose the gemstone's name to suggest "a jewel of a language.
  • Rule of Least Power - The Rule of Least Power is the notion that a programmer should use the least powerful programming language required to code for a given requirement.
  • runtime - Runtime is a piece of code that implements portions of a programming language's execution model.
  • sandbox (software testing and security) - A sandbox is an isolated testing environment that enables users to run programs or open files without affecting the application, system or platform on which they run.
  • SAP BAPI (Business Application Programming Interface) - SAP BAPI (Business Application Programming Interface) is a standard interface to the business object models in SAP products.
  • SAP Basis - Basis is a set of middleware programs and tools from SAP, the German company whose comprehensive R/3 product is used to help manage large corporations.
  • SAP NetWeaver - SAP NetWeaver is a technology platform that allows organizations to integrate data, business processes, elements and more from a variety of sources into unified SAP environments.
  • scraper site - A scraper site is a website that features content stolen from other sites and presented as original.
  • Scratch - Scratch is a free object-oriented software development kit (SDK) that allows children age 8-16 to create animations, interactive stories, games and music without needing to know a specific programming language.
  • script - In computer programming, a script is a program or sequence of instructions that is interpreted or carried out by another program rather than by the computer processor (as a compiled program is).
  • scripting language - A scripting language is a form of programming language that is usually interpreted rather than compiled.
  • SDL (Specification and Description Language) - SDL (Specification and Description Language) is a program design and implementation language that is used to build real-time event-driven systems that involve parallel processing.
  • security by design - Security by design is an approach to software and hardware development that seeks to make systems as free of vulnerabilities and impervious to attack as possible through such measures as continuous testing, authentication safeguards and adherence to best practices.
  • semaphore - In programming, especially in Unix systems, semaphores are a technique for coordinating or synchronizing activities in which multiple processes compete for the same operating system resources.
  • semiotics - Semiotics is the study of the use of symbolic communication.
  • Service Data Objects (SDO) - Service Data Objects (SDO) is the name of a specification designed to streamline the processing of SOA (service-oriented architecture) data from diverse sources such as XML documents, relational databases and Web services.
  • SFX (special effects) - SFX, an abbreviation for special effects, is a software product that makes it easy to create certain kinds of hypertext links within a collection of information such as the description of a library collection.
  • SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) - SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) is a standard for how to specify a document markup language or tag set.
  • shared memory - In computer programming, shared memory is a method by which program processes can exchange data more quickly than by reading and writing using the regular operating system services.
  • shotgun debugging - Shotgun debugging is the debugging of a program, hardware, or system problem using the approach of trying several possible solutions at the same time in the hope that one of them will work.
  • Simula (simulation language) - Simula, short for "simulation language," was the first object-oriented programming language.
  • site scraper - A site scraper is a type of software used to copy content from a website.
  • smoke testing - Smoke testing, also called build verification testing or build acceptance testing, is nonexhaustive software analysis that ascertains that the most crucial functions of a program work but does not delve into finer details.
  • Snake case - Snake case is a naming convention where a developer replaces spaces between words with an underscore.
  • SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) - SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), which is based in Extensible Markup Language (XML), facilitates communication between application and operating systems.
  • software - Software is a set of instructions, data or programs used to operate computers and execute specific tasks.
  • software agent - A software agent is a persistent, goal-oriented computer program that reacts to its environment and runs without continuous direct supervision to perform some function for an end user or another program.
  • software development - Software development is the body of processes involved in creating software programs, embodying all the stages throughout the systems development life cycle (SDLC).
  • software development kit (SDK) - A software development toolkit (SDK) is a set of software tools and programs provided by hardware and software vendors that developers can use to build applications for specific platforms.
  • Software patch/fix - A software patch or fix helps resolve issues that crop up in different programs.
  • software testing - Software testing is a method of assessing the functionality of a software program.
  • Solidity - Solidity is a programming language used for developing smart contracts on Ethereum and other blockchain platforms, such as Monax and its Hyperledger Burrow blockchain.
  • sorting algorithm - A sorting algorithm is a method for reorganizing a large number of items into a specific order, such as alphabetical, highest-to-lowest value or shortest-to-longest distance.
  • source code - Source code is the fundamental component of a computer program that is created by a programmer.
  • spam filter - A spam filter is a program used to detect unsolicited, unwanted and virus-infected emails and prevent those messages from getting to a user's inbox.
  • spike - A spike is a sharp rise in the frequency for a given variable, usually immediately followed by a decrease.
  • spiral model - The spiral model is a systems development lifecycle (SDLC) method used for risk management that combines the iterative development process model with elements of the waterfall model.
  • SQL injection - A SQL injection is a technique that attackers use to gain unauthorized access to a web application database by adding a string of malicious code to a database query.
SearchCompliance
  • ISO 31000 Risk Management

    The ISO 31000 Risk Management framework is an international standard that provides businesses with guidelines and principles for ...

  • pure risk

    Pure risk refers to risks that are beyond human control and result in a loss or no loss with no possibility of financial gain.

  • risk reporting

    Risk reporting is a method of identifying risks tied to or potentially impacting an organization's business processes.

SearchSecurity
  • Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)

    Pretty Good Privacy or PGP was a popular program used to encrypt and decrypt email over the internet, as well as authenticate ...

  • email security

    Email security is the process of ensuring the availability, integrity and authenticity of email communications by protecting ...

  • Blowfish

    Blowfish is a variable-length, symmetric, 64-bit block cipher.

SearchHealthIT
SearchDisasterRecovery
  • What is risk mitigation?

    Risk mitigation is a strategy to prepare for and lessen the effects of threats faced by a business.

  • fault-tolerant

    Fault-tolerant technology is a capability of a computer system, electronic system or network to deliver uninterrupted service, ...

  • synchronous replication

    Synchronous replication is the process of copying data over a storage area network, local area network or wide area network so ...

SearchStorage
  • direct access

    In computer storage, direct access is the process of reading and writing data on a storage device by going directly to where the ...

  • kibi, mebi, gibi, tebi, pebi and exbi

    Kibi, mebi, gibi, tebi, pebi and exbi are binary prefix multipliers that, in 1998, were approved as a standard by the ...

  • holographic storage (holostorage)

    Holographic storage is computer storage that uses laser beams to store computer-generated data in three dimensions.

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