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Programming

Definitions related to software programming, including tech terms about programming languages and words and phrases about software design, coding, testing and debugging.

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  • Open Document Format (ODF) - The Open Document Format (ODF) is an XML-based open source file format for saving and exchanging text, spreadsheets, charts, and presentations.
  • Open Source Hardening Project - The Open Source Hardening Project is an initiative of the United States Department of Homeland Security, created to improve the security of open source code.
  • open source hardware (open hardware) - Open source hardware, also called open hardware, is electronic or computer hardware built from design information that could be copyrighted or licensed but has instead been made available for public use at no charge.
  • open source software (OSS) - Open source software (OSS) refers to software that is developed, tested, or improved through public collaboration and distributed with the idea that code must be shared with others.
  • OpenAPI Specification - The OpenAPI (OAI) Specification defines a standard, programming language-agnostic interface description for RESTful APIs.
  • operation - An operation, in mathematics and computer science, is an action that is carried out to accomplish a given task.
  • orthogonal - Orthogonal concepts have their roots in advanced mathematics.
  • out-of-order execution (OoOE) - Out-of-order execution (OoOE) is an approach to processing that allows instructions for high-performance microprocessors to begin execution as soon as their operands are ready.
  • pair programming - Pair programming is an Agile technique originating from XP in which two developers team together and work on one computer.
  • panel - In computer program development, a panel is a representation of what information will be sent to a user's display screen in given circumstances.
  • parallel processing - Parallel processing is a method in computing of running two or more processors (CPUs) to handle separate parts of an overall task.
  • parallel processing software - Parallel processing software manages the execution of a program on parallel processing hardware with the objectives of obtaining unlimited scalability (being able to handle an increasing number of interactions at the same time) and reducing execution time.
  • parameter - In information technology, a parameter (pronounced puh-RAA-meh-tuhr, from Greek for, roughly, through measure) is an item of information - such as a name, a number, or a selected option - that is passed to a program by a user or another program.
  • parse - To parse is to analyze something in an orderly way.
  • parser - In computer technology, a parser is a program, usually part of a compiler, that receives input in the form of sequential source program instructions, interactive online commands, markup tags, or some other defined interface and breaks them up into parts (for example, the nouns (objects), verbs (methods), and their attributes or options) that can then be managed by other programming (for example, other components in a compiler).
  • Pascal - Pascal is a strongly-typed third-generation language (3GL) with a one-pass compiler.
  • Pascal case - Pascal case is a naming convention in which developers start each new word in a variable with an uppercase letter.
  • Pasta Theory of Programming - The Pasta Theory of Programming is the idea that various programming structures can be likened to the structures of well-known pasta dishes.
  • pastebin - A pastebin is a Web application that allows users to upload and share text online.
  • pattern (design pattern) - In software development, a pattern (or design pattern) is a written document that describes a general solution to a design problem that recurs repeatedly in many projects.
  • performance testing - Performance testing is a testing measure that evaluates the speed, responsiveness and stability of a computer, network, software program or device under a workload.
  • Perl - Perl is a family of script programming languages that are similar in syntax to the C language, including Perl 5 and Perl 6.
  • PERT chart - A PERT chart, sometimes called a PERT diagram, is a project management tool used to schedule, organize and coordinate tasks within a project.
  • PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) - PHP is a script language and interpreter that is freely available and used primarily on Linux Web servers.
  • physical address - A physical address is a binary number in the form of logical high and low states on an address bus that corresponds to a particular cell of primary storage (also called main memory), or to a particular register in a memory-mapped I/O (input/output) device.
  • PICTIVE (Plastic Interface for Collaborative Technology Initiatives through Video Exploration) - PICTIVE (Plastic Interface for Collaborative Technology Initiatives through Video Exploration) is a paper mock-up technique that allows users to participate in the development process.
  • pigs and chickens - Pigs and chickens is an analogy used in the Scrum software development model to define the type of role an attendee can play at a daily scrum meeting.
  • pipe - In computer programming, especially in UNIX operating systems, a pipe is a technique for passing information from one program process to another.
  • PL/I - PL/I is a third-generation (3GL) programming language developed in the early 1960s as an alternative to assembler language (for low-level computer processing functions), COBOL (for large-scale business applications), and FORTRAN (for scientific and algorithmic applications).
  • PL/S - PL/S is a language that IBM designed for use in developing system programs, especially in mainframe operating systems and application subsystems.
  • PL/SQL (procedural language extension to Structured Query Language) - In Oracle database management, PL/SQL is a procedural language extension to Structured Query Language (SQL).
  • planning board - In agile software development, a planning board is used to track the progress of an project.
  • planning game - In agile software development, a planning game is a meeting attended by both IT and business teams that is focused on choosing stories for a release or iteration.
  • platform - A computer platform is an underlying computer system on which application programs can run, or, in general, any base of technologies on which other technologies or processes are built.
  • PMML (Predictive Model Markup Language) - PMML (Predictive Model Markup Language) is an XML-based language that enables the definition and sharing of predictive models between applications.
  • polled interrupt - In a computer, a polled interrupt is a specific type of I/O interrupt that notifies the part of the computer containing the I/O interface that a device is ready to be read or otherwise handled but does not indicate which device.
  • polyglot programming - Polyglot programming is the practice of writing code in multiple languages to capture additional functionality and efficiency not available in a single language.
  • polymorphism - In object-oriented programming, polymorphism (from the Greek meaning "having multiple forms") is the characteristic of being able to assign a different meaning or usage to something in different contexts - specifically, to allow an entity such as a variable, a function, or an object to have more than one form.
  • polynomial interpolation - Polynomial interpolation is a method of estimating values between known data points.
  • pop-up blocker (pop-up killer) - A pop-up blocker (sometimes called a pop-up killer) is a program that prevents pop-ups from displaying in a user's Web browser.
  • portability - Portability is a characteristic attributed to a computer program if it can be used in an operating systems other than the one in which it was created without requiring major rework.
  • Postscript - Postscript is a programming language that describes the appearance of a printed page.
  • PowerBuilder - PowerBuilder is a popular rapid application development (RAD) tool for buildingobject-oriented programmingclient/serverapplications the parts of which can bedistributedwithin a network.
  • PowerShell - PowerShell is an object-oriented automation engine and scripting language with an interactive command-line shell that Microsoft developed to help IT professionals configure systems and automate administrative tasks.
  • prettyprint - Prettyprint is the process of converting and presenting source code or other objects in a legible and attractive way.
  • primitive - In computer programming, a primitive (pronounced PRIH-muh-teev) is a basic interface or segment of code that can be used to build more sophisticated program elements or interfaces.
  • PRINCE2 - PRINCE2 is a project management methodology developed by the government of the United Kingdom (UK) and used internationally, especially in information technology (IT) environments.
  • principle of least privilege (POLP) - The principle of least privilege (POLP), an important concept in computer security, is the practice of limiting access rights for users to the bare minimum permissions they need to perform their work.
  • Prism - Prism is an application that lets users run web applications in dedicated browser windows.
  • problem management - Problem management, in information technology, is a process aimed at resolving incidents and problems caused by end-user errors or IT infrastructure issues, and preventing recurrence of such incidents.
  • product backlog grooming - Product backlog grooming is an Agile software development process in which the development team revisits a pre-defined product backlog, working with stakeholders to prioritize and break the backlog list into user stories for future use.
  • product owner - The product owner is a role in scrum development of the person who represents the business or user community.
  • product-agnostic - Product-agnostic is a description of something that is not associated with a particular commercial product -- such as a specific device or application -- or something that is interoperable with all products of a given type.
  • program counter - A program counter is a register in a computer processor that contains the address (location) of the instruction being executed at the current time.
  • program temporary fix (PTF) - In IBM, a program temporary fix (PTF) is a temporary solution to a bug in an IBM software product that is made available for customers to install.
  • programming language generations - In the computer industry, these abbreviations are widely used to represent major steps or "generations" in the evolution of programming languages.
  • project management - Project management is the discipline of using established principles, procedures and policies to successfully guide a project from conception through completion.
  • project planning - Project planning is a discipline for stating how to complete a project within a certain timeframe, usually with defined stages, and with designated resources.
  • protected mode - Protected mode is a mode of program operation in a computer with an Intel-based microprocessor in which the program is restricted to addressing a specific contiguous area of 640 kilobytes.
  • prototype - In software development, a prototype is a rudimentary working model of a product or information system, usually built for demonstration purposes or as part of the development process.
  • pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) - A pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) is a program written for, and used in, probability and statistics applications when large quantities of random digits are needed.
  • pseudocode - Pseudocode (pronounced SOO-doh-kohd) is a detailed yet readable description of what a computer program or algorithm must do, expressed in a formally-styled natural language rather than in a programming language.
  • Python - Python is an interpreted, object-oriented programming language similar to PERL, that has gained popularity because of its clear syntax and readability.
  • Quagga - Quagga is an open source suite of applications for the management of routing protocols.
  • quality - In an information technology product or service, quality is sometimes defined as "meeting the requirements of the customer.
  • quality assurance (QA) - Quality assurance (QA) is any systematic process of determining whether a product or service meets specified requirements.
  • Quick Fix Engineering (QFE) - Quick Fix Engineering (QFE) is a Microsoft term for the delivery of individual service updates to its operating systems and application programs such as Word.
  • race condition - A race condition is an undesirable situation that occurs when a device or system attempts to perform two or more operations at the same time, but because of the nature of the device or system, the operations must be done in the proper sequence to be done correctly.
  • random numbers - Random numbers are numbers that occur in a sequence such that two conditions are met: ( the values are uniformly distributed over a defined interval or set, and (2) it is impossible to predict future values based on past or present ones.
  • rapid application development (RAD) - Rapid application development (RAD) is a model based on the concept that higher-quality products can be developed faster through more expedient processes, such as early prototyping, reusing software components and less formality in team communications.
  • rapid mobile app development (RMAD) - Rapid mobile application development (RMAD) uses low-code/no-code programming tools to speed the process of application creation for mobile platforms.
  • Rational Rose - Rational Rose, is a object-oriented Unified Modeling Language (UML) software design tool intended for visual modeling and component construction of enterprise-level software applications.
  • Rational Unified Process (RUP) - Rational Unified Process (RUP) is an object-oriented and Web-enabled program development methodology.
  • reactive programming - Reactive programming describes a design paradigm that relies on asynchronous programming logic to handle real-time updates to otherwise static content.
  • recursion - In computer programming, a recursion (noun, pronounced ree-KUHR-zhion) is programming that is recursive (adjective), and recursive has two related meanings: A recursive procedure or routine is one that has the ability to call itself.
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) - Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) is a distribution of the Linux operating system developed for the business market.
  • reentrant - Reentrant is an adjective that describes a computer program or routine that is written so that the same copy in memory can be shared by multiple users.
  • refactoring - Refactoring is "the process of changing a software system in such a way that it does not alter the external behavior of the code yet improves its internal structure," according to Martin Fowler, the "father" of refactoring.
  • refresh rate - The refresh rate is the number of times a display's image is repainted or refreshed per second.
  • register (processor register, CPU register) - A processor register is one of a small set of data holding places that are part of the computer processor.
  • regression testing - Regression testing is a type of software test that assesses if changes to an application, or other related software components, introduce defects.
  • regular expression (regex) - A regular expression (sometimes abbreviated to "regex") is a way for a computer user or programmer to express how a computer program should look for a specified pattern in text and then what the program is to do when each pattern match is found.
  • RELAX NG (RELAX Next Generation) - RELAX NG (RELAX Next Generation) is a deliberately simple and straightforward XML markup language for metadocument data, aka schemas, developed in response to the W3C XML Schema standard.
  • release - A release is the distribution of the final version of an application.
  • release management - Release management is a software engineering process intended to oversee the development, testing, deployment and support of software releases.
  • release plan - In agile software development, a release plan is an evolving flowchart that describes which features will be delivered in upcoming releases.
  • reliability - Reliability is an attribute of any computer-related component (software, or hardware, or a network, for example) that consistently performs according to its specifications.
  • Remote Method Invocation (RMI) - RMI (Remote Method Invocation) is a way that a programmer, using the Java programming language and development environment, can write object-oriented programming in which objects on different computers can interact in a distributed network.
  • Remote Procedure Call (RPC) - Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is a protocol that one program can use to request a service from a program located in another computer on a network without having to understand the network's details.
  • requirements stability index (RSI) - A requirement stability index (RSI) is a metric used to organize, control, and track changes to the originally specified requirements for a new system project or product.
  • rescoring - Rescoring is an Agile software development process in which the development team revisits a pre-defined list of user stories to review story point scores and adjust them up or down based on what the team has learned in previous development iterations.
  • reverse engineering - Reverse engineering is taking apart an object to see how it works in order to duplicate or enhance the object.
  • Rexx - Rexx is an interpreted script language developed by IBM originally for use by personal users of large operating systems.
  • RFM analysis (recency, frequency, monetary) - RFM (recency, frequency, monetary) analysis is a marketing technique used to determine which customers are the best ones by examining how often a customer buys (recency), how long it's been since their last purchase (frequency), and.
  • rollover - In creating page for a Web site, a rollover (some people call it a "mouseover") is a technique using JavaScript that lets you change a page element (usuallly a graphic image) when the user rolls the mouse over something on the page (like a line of text or a graphic image).
  • ROM emulation - ROM emulation is the process of copying data from a ROM (read-only memory) chip to a storage medium such as a hard disk or flash memory.
  • rounding error - Rounding error is the difference between a rounded-off numerical value and the actual value.
  • routine - In computer programming, routine and subroutine are general and nearly synonymous terms for any sequence of code that is intended to be called and used repeatedly during the executable of a program.
  • Ruby - Ruby is an open source, interpreted, object-oriented programming language created by Yukihiro Matsumoto, who chose the gemstone's name to suggest "a jewel of a language.
  • Rule of Least Power - The Rule of Least Power is the notion that a programmer should use the least powerful programming language required to code for a given requirement.

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