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Programming

Definitions related to software programming, including tech terms about programming languages and words and phrases about software design, coding, testing and debugging.

REG - SWI

  • register (processor register, CPU register) - A processor register is one of a small set of data holding places that are part of a processor, or CPU, in a computer.
  • regression testing - Regression testing is a type of software test that assesses if changes to an application, or other related software components, introduce defects.
  • regular expression (regex) - A regular expression (sometimes abbreviated to "regex") is a way for a computer user or programmer to express how a computer program should look for a specified pattern in text and then what the program is to do when each pattern match is found.
  • RELAX NG (RELAX Next Generation) - RELAX NG (RELAX Next Generation) is a deliberately simple and straightforward XML markup language for metadocument data, aka schemas, developed in response to the W3C XML Schema standard.
  • release - A release is the distribution of the final version of an application.
  • release management - Release management is a software engineering process intended to oversee the development, testing, deployment and support of software releases.
  • release plan - In agile software development, a release plan is an evolving flowchart that describes which features will be delivered in upcoming releases.
  • reliability - Reliability is an attribute of any computer-related component (software, or hardware, or a network, for example) that consistently performs according to its specifications.
  • Remote Method Invocation (RMI) - RMI (Remote Method Invocation) is a way that a programmer, using the Java programming language and development environment, can write object-oriented programming in which objects on different computers can interact in a distributed network.
  • Remote Procedure Call (RPC) - Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is a protocol that one program can use to request a service from a program located in another computer on a network without having to understand the network's details.
  • reparse point - A reparse point is an object in a file system with attributes that activate extended functionality.
  • Report Program Generator (RPG) - RPG (Report Program Generator) is a programming language that originated as a report-building program used in DEC and IBM minicomputer operating systems and evolved into a fully procedural programming language.
  • requirements stability index (RSI) - A requirement stability index (RSI) is a metric used to organize, control, and track changes to the originally specified requirements for a new system project or product.
  • rescoring - Rescoring is an Agile software development process in which the development team revisits a pre-defined list of user stories to review story point scores and adjust them up or down based on what the team has learned in previous development iterations.
  • reverse engineering - Reverse engineering is taking apart an object to see how it works in order to duplicate or enhance the object.
  • Rexx - Rexx is an interpreted script language developed by IBM originally for use by personal users of large operating systems.
  • RFM analysis (recency, frequency, monetary) - RFM (recency, frequency, monetary) analysis is a marketing technique used to determine which customers are the best ones by examining how often a customer buys (recency), how long it's been since their last purchase (frequency), and.
  • rollover - In creating page for a Web site, a rollover (some people call it a "mouseover") is a technique using JavaScript that lets you change a page element (usuallly a graphic image) when the user rolls the mouse over something on the page (like a line of text or a graphic image).
  • ROM emulation - ROM emulation is the process of copying data from a ROM (read-only memory) chip to a storage medium such as a hard disk or flash memory.
  • rounding error - Rounding error is the difference between a rounded-off numerical value and the actual value.
  • routine - In computer programming, routine and subroutine are general and nearly synonymous terms for any sequence of code that is intended to be called and used repeatedly during the executable of a program.
  • Ruby - Ruby is an open source, interpreted, object-oriented programming language created by Yukihiro Matsumoto, who chose the gemstone's name to suggest "a jewel of a language.
  • Rule of Least Power - The Rule of Least Power is the notion that a programmer should use the least powerful programming language required to code for a given requirement.
  • runtime - Runtime is when a program is running (or being executable).
  • sandbox (software testing and security) - A sandbox is an isolated testing environment that enables users to run programs or execute files without affecting the application, system or platform on which they run.
  • SAP BAPI (Business Application Programming Interface) - SAP BAPI (Business Application Programming Interface) is a standard interface to the business object models in SAP products.
  • SAP Basis - Basis is a set of middleware programs and tools from SAP, the German company whose comprehensive R/3 product is used to help manage large corporations.
  • SAP Exchange Infrastructure (SAP XI) - SAP Exchange Infrastructure (SAP XI) is SAP's enterprise application integration (EAI) software, a component of the NetWeaver product group used to facilitate the exchange of information among a company's internal software and systems and those of externa.
  • SAP Integration Adapter - A SAP Integration Adapter is a product that facilitates the integration of a business application into an environment running SAP applications with SAP's NetWeaver and the SAP Exchange Infrastructure.
  • SAP Integration Repository - SAP Integration Repository is the design configuration piece of the SAP Exchange Infrastructure (XI), the process integration layer of the NetWeaver component from SAP, the company that sells a widely-used enterprise application platform.
  • SAP Integration Server - SAP Integration Server is the central component of SAP XI (Exchange Infrastructure), the company's enterprise application integration (EAI) product.
  • SAP NetWeaver - SAP NetWeaver is a technology platform that allows organizations to integrate data, business processes, elements and more from a variety of sources into unified SAP environments.
  • SAX (Simple API for XML) - SAX (Simple API for XML) is an application program interface (API) that allows a programmer to interpret a Web file that uses the Extensible Markup Language (XML) -- that is, a Web file that describes a collection of data.
  • scalar - In mathematics, scalar (noun) and scalar (adjective) refer to a quantity consisting of a single real number used to measured magnitude (size).
  • scraper site - A scraper site is a website that features content stolen from other sites and presented as original.
  • Scratch - Scratch is a free object-oriented software development kit (SDK) that allows children age 8-16 to create animations, interactive stories, games and music without needing to know a specific programming language.
  • script - In computer programming, a script is a program or sequence of instructions that is interpreted or carried out by another program rather than by the computer processor (as a compiled program is).
  • scripting language - A scripting language is a form of programming language that is usually interpreted rather than compiled.
  • SDL (Specification and Description Language) - SDL (Specification and Description Language) is a program design and implementation language that is used to build real-time event-driven systems that involve parallel processing.
  • seamless interface - A seamless interface is the joining of two computer programs so that they appear to be one program with a single user interface.
  • security by design - Security by design is an approach to software and hardware development that seeks to make systems as free of vulnerabilities and impervious to attack as possible through such measures as continuous testing, authentication safeguards and adherence to best practices.
  • Security Descriptor Definition Language (SDDL) - Security Descriptor Definition Language (SDDL) is a formal way to specify Microsoft Windows security descriptors or text strings that describe who owns various objects such as files in the system.
  • self-directed work team (SDWT) - A self-directed work team (SDWT) is a group of people, usually employees in a company, who combine different skills and talents to work without the usual managerial supervision toward a common purpose or goal.
  • semaphore - In programming, especially in Unix systems, semaphores are a technique for coordinating or synchronizing activities in which multiple processes compete for the same operating system resources.
  • semiotics - Semiotics is the study of the use of symbolic communication.
  • server virtualization - Server virtualization is a process that creates and abstracts multiple virtual instances on a single server.
  • Service Data Objects (SDO) - Service Data Objects (SDO) is the name of a specification designed to streamline the processing of SOA (service-oriented architecture) data from diverse sources such as XML documents, relational databases and Web services.
  • Service Integration Maturity Model (SIMM) - The Service Integration Maturity Model (SIMM) is a paradigm developed by IBM that defines the extent to which various services are integrated in a service-oriented architecture (SOA).
  • service pack - A service pack is an orderable or downloadable update to a customer's software that fixes existing problems and, in some cases, delivers product enhancements.
  • SFX (special effects) - SFX, an abbreviation for special effects, is a software product that makes it easy to create certain kinds of hypertext links within a collection of information such as the description of a library collection.
  • SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) - SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) is a standard for how to specify a document markup language or tag set.
  • shared memory - In computer programming, shared memory is a method by which program processes can exchange data more quickly than by reading and writing using the regular operating system services.
  • shared source - Shared source is a software licensing concept that is more open than the proprietary approach to licensing but more restricted than the open source model.
  • shotgun debugging - Shotgun debugging is the debugging of a program, hardware, or system problem using the approach of trying several possible solutions at the same time in the hope that one of them will work.
  • simplicity - In information technology, simplicity is a quality that is frequently sought by both users and technologists, although, as users frequently attest, it is not always found.
  • Simula (simulation language) - Simula, short for "simulation language," was the first object-oriented programming language.
  • Single UNIX Specification - The Single UNIX Specification is an industry standard description of the C language program and user command interfaces for a standard Unix operating system.
  • single-sourcing - Single-sourcing is the development of information content in a form that can conveniently be the basis for other forms of content.
  • single-system image (SSI) - Single-system image (SSI) is the idea that the resources provided by cluster computing or in any system which aggregates resources should present a single interface to the user.
  • singleton - In object-oriented programming, a singleton class is a class that can have only one object (an instance of the class) at a time.
  • site scraper - A site scraper is a type of software used to copy content from a website.
  • Slashdot - Slashdot is a socially curated website dedicated to technology-related news items.
  • Smalltalk - Smalltalk is a programming language that was designed expressly to support the concepts of object-oriented programming.
  • smoke testing - Smoke testing, also called build verification testing or build acceptance testing, is nonexhaustive software analysis that ascertains that the most crucial functions of a program work but does not delve into finer details.
  • SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) - SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), which is based in Extensible Markup Language (XML), facilitates communication between application and operating systems.
  • software - Software is a set of instructions, data or programs used to operate computers and execute specific tasks.
  • software agent - A software agent is a persistent, goal-oriented computer program that reacts to its environment and runs without continuous direct supervision to perform some function for an end user or another program.
  • software development - Software development is the body of processes involved in creating software programs, embodying all the stages throughout the systems development life cycle (SDLC).
  • software development kit (SDK) - A software development toolkit (SDK) is a set of software tools and programs provided by hardware and software vendors that developers can use to build applications for specific platforms.
  • Software patch/fix - A software patch or fix helps resolve issues that crop up in different programs.
  • software testing - Software testing is a method of assessing the functionality of a software program.
  • Solidity - Solidity is a programming language used for developing smart contracts on Ethereum and other blockchain platforms, such as Monax and its Hyperledger Burrow blockchain.
  • solution stack - A solution stack is an ordered collection of software that makes it possible to complete a particular task.
  • sorting algorithm - A sorting algorithm is a method for reorganizing a large number of items into a specific order, such as alphabetical, highest-to-lowest value or shortest-to-longest distance.
  • source code - Source code is the fundamental component of a computer program that is created by a programmer.
  • spaghetti code - Spaghetti code is a derogatory term for computer programming that is unnecessarily convoluted and difficult to change.
  • spam filter - A spam filter is a program that is used to detect unsolicited and unwanted email and prevent those messages from getting to a user's inbox.
  • Speech Application Program Interface (SAPI) - SAPI (Speech Application Program Interface) is an application program interface (API) provided with the Microsoft Windows operating systemthat allows programmers to write programs that offer text-to-speech and speech recognitioncapabilities.
  • spike - A spike is a sharp rise in the frequency for a given variable, usually immediately followed by a decrease.
  • spiral model - The spiral model is a systems development lifecycle (SDLC) method used for risk management that combines the iterative development process model with elements of the waterfall model.
  • SQL injection - A SQL injection (SQLi) is a security exploit in which the attacker adds Structured Query Language (SQL) code to a Web form input box in order to gain access to unauthorized resources or make changes to sensitive data.
  • SSADM (Structured Systems Analysis & Design Method) - SSADM (Structured Systems Analysis & Design Method) is a widely-used computer application development method in the UK, where its use is often specified as a requirement for government computing projects.
  • stack overflow - A stack overflow is an undesirable condition in which a particular computer program tries to use more memory space than the call stack has available.
  • stack pointer - A stack pointer is a small register that stores the address of the last program request in a stack.
  • stack smashing - Stack smashing is causing a stack in a computer application or operating system to overflow.
  • state diagram (state machine diagram or statechart diagram) - A state diagram, also known as a state machine diagram or statechart diagram, is an illustration of the states an object can attain as well as the transitions between those states in the Unified Modeling Language (UML).
  • state machine - In general, a state machine is any device that stores the status of something at a given time and can operate on input to change the status and/or cause an action or output to take place for any given change.
  • stateless - Stateful and stateless are adjectives that describe whether a computer or computer program is designed to note and remember one or more preceding events in a given sequence of interactions with a user, another computer or program, a device, or other outside element.
  • static testing - Static testing is a software testing method that involves the examination of a program, along with any associated documents, but does not require the program to be executed.
  • statistical mean, median, mode and range - Calculating the mean, median, mode and range of a set of numbers allows you to track changes over time and set acceptable ranges and variance.
  • stochastic - Generally, stochastic (pronounced stow-KAS-tik, from the Greek stochastikos, or "skilled at aiming," since stochos is a target) describes an approach to anything that is based on probability.
  • story - In agile software development, a story is a particular business need assigned to the software development team.
  • stove-piped development - In engineering and information technology, stove-piped development is an approach in which improvements are considered only within the existing and technologically familiar context.
  • straw man - In general, a straw man is an object, document, person, or argument that temporarily stands in for and is intended to be "knocked down" by something more substantial.
  • stress testing - Stress testing is the process of determining the ability of a computer, network, program or device to maintain a certain level of effectiveness under unfavorable conditions.
  • string - In programming, a string is a contiguous (see contiguity) sequence of symbols or values, such as a character string (a sequence of characters) or a binary digit string (a sequence of binary values).
  • strongly-typed programming language - A strongly-typed programming language is one in which each type of data (such as integer, character, hexadecimal, packed decimal, and so forth) is predefined as part of the programming language and all constants or variables defined for a given program must be described with one of the data types.
  • structured programming (modular programming) - Structured programming (sometimes known as modular programming) is a programming paradigm that facilitates the creation of programs with readable code and reusable components.
  • stub - A stub is a small program routine that substitutes for a longer program, possibly to be loaded later or that is located remotely.
  • Sun ONE (Sun Open Net Environment) - Sun ONE (Sun Open Net Environment) is a marketing strategy and set of products from Sun Microsystems aimed at enabling an enterprise to build Web services for its own internal use and for its customers.

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    Risk assessment is the identification of hazards that could negatively impact an organization's ability to conduct business.

  • PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard)

    The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) is a widely accepted set of policies and procedures intended to ...

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    Risk management is the process of identifying, assessing and controlling threats to an organization's capital and earnings.

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    A call tree is a layered hierarchical communication model that is used to notify specific individuals of an event and coordinate ...

  • Disaster Recovery as a Service (DRaaS)

    Disaster recovery as a service (DRaaS) is the replication and hosting of physical or virtual servers by a third party to provide ...

  • cloud disaster recovery (cloud DR)

    Cloud disaster recovery (cloud DR) is a combination of strategies and services intended to back up data, applications and other ...

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