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Project management

Terms related to project management, including definitions about project management methodologies and tools.

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  • private sector - The private sector is the part of a country's economic system that is run by individuals and companies, rather than the government.
  • privilege bracketing - Privilege bracketing is the practice of limiting temporarily increased permission levels to the briefest possible time period.
  • process-centric BPM - Process-centric business process management is a holistic approach to BPM that centers on processes themselves, rather than individual  components such as  documents, workflow or people.
  • product lifecycle - The product lifecycle is the collective stages that a product goes through from its conception and design through to its ultimate disposal.
  • product lifecycle sustainability - Product lifecycle sustainability is an approach to managing the stages of a product’s existence so that any negative impact on the environment is minimized.
  • product owner - The product owner is a role in scrum development of the person who represents the business or user community.
  • professional emancipation - Professional emancipation is an approach to work that focuses on the ability of individuals to guide and control their careers and work life.
  • progressive delivery - Progressive delivery is the process of pushing changes to a product iteratively, first to a small audience and then to increasingly larger audiences to maintain quality control (QC).
  • project charter (PC) - A project charter (PC) is a document that states a project exists and provides the project manager with written authority to begin work.
  • project management - Project management is the discipline of using established principles, procedures and policies to successfully guide a project from conception through completion.
  • Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) - The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) is a document containing standard terminology, best practices and process guidelines around project management as defined by the Project Management Institute (PMI).
  • Project Management Professional (PMP) - Project Management Professional (PMP) certification is a qualification program overseen by the Project Management Institute (PMI).
  • project planning - Project planning is a discipline for stating how to complete a project within a certain timeframe, usually with defined stages, and with designated resources.
  • project post-mortem - Project post-mortem is a process intended to inform project improvements by determining aspects that were successful or unsuccessful.
  • project scope - Project scope is the part of project planning that involves determining and documenting a list of specific project goals, deliverables, tasks, costs and deadlines.
  • proprietary solution - A proprietary solution is a hardware or software product or combination of products and services that is tied to a specific vendor, to the exclusion of all other vendors.
  • public relations (PR) - Public relations (PR) is the use of communications to manage public perception of an individual or an organization.
  • quality control (QC) - Quality control (QC) is a procedure or set of procedures intended to ensure that a manufactured product or performed service adheres to a defined set of quality criteria or meets the requirements of the client or customer.
  • quality function deployment - Quality function deployment (QFD) is the translation of user requirements or requests into designs.
  • rainmaker (business) - A rainmaker is an individual who generates an unusually high amount of revenue for an organization by bringing new clients and new business to the company.
  • reality check - A reality check is a second opinion, either requested or provided voluntarily, about the status of some current situation.
  • red teaming - Red teaming is the practice of rigorously challenging an organization's plans, policies, systems and assumptions by applying an adversarial approach.
  • reinforcement theory - Reinforcement theory is a psychological principle maintaining that behaviors are shaped by their consequences and that, accordingly, individual behaviors can be changed through rewards and punishments.
  • release - A release is the distribution of the final version of an application.
  • release management - Release management is a software engineering process intended to oversee the development, testing, deployment and support of software releases.
  • release plan - In agile software development, a release plan is an evolving flowchart that describes which features will be delivered in upcoming releases.
  • relentless incrementalism - Relentless incrementalism is a process in which something substantial is built through the accumulation of small but incessant additions.
  • reorganization (reorg) - Reorganization, in a business context, is an overhaul of a company's internal structure.
  • repeatable process - A repeatable process is a set of actions that allow for a more efficient use of limited resources and reduce unwanted variation during the development and implementation of various projects.
  • requirements analysis (requirements engineering) - Requirements analysis, also called requirements engineering, is the process of determining user expectations for a new or modified product.
  • Respect for People principle - Continuous Improvement (CI) and Respect for People are the two foundational principles of the Toyota Way, the company's business management guide.
  • Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE) - A Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE) is a human resource management (HRM) strategy that places emphasis on setting and meeting objectives.
  • Ringelmann effect - The Ringelmann effect is a reduction in productivity per individual that tends to occur as the numbers of people involved in a work group increase.
  • risk-reward ratio - Risk-reward ratio is a formula used to measure the expected gains of a given investment against the risk of loss.
  • RS Means - RS Means is a division of Reed Business Information that provides cost information to the construction industry so contractors in the industry can provide accurate estimates and projections for their project costs.
  • rule of thumb - A rule of thumb is a principle that is intended to provide general guidance rather than precise direction.
  • satisficer - A satisficer is a pragmatic individual who makes decisions based on meeting requirements in a timely manner, finding the “good enough” solution and moving on.
  • scenario - Scenarios are potential events or combinations of events that could have an effect on a business -- typically a given scenario carries either risk or opportunity.
  • scenario planning - Scenario planning allows a business to prepare for various potential events and situations, known as scenarios.
  • seed capital - Seed capital is the funding required to get a new business started.
  • segregation of duties (SoD) - Segregation of duties (SoD) is an internal control designed to prevent error and fraud by ensuring that at least two individuals are responsible for the separate parts of any task.
  • Service Integration Maturity Model (SIMM) - The Service Integration Maturity Model (SIMM) is a paradigm developed by IBM that defines the extent to which various services are integrated in a service-oriented architecture (SOA).
  • should costing (should-cost analysis) - The purpose of should-cost analysis is assessing an appropriate figure to guide negotiations or to compare with a figure provided by a supplier.
  • SOA governance - SOA governance refers to the processes used to oversee and control the adoption and implementation of service-oriented architecture (SOA) in accordance with recognized practices, principles and government regulations.
  • social entrepreneur - A social entrepreneur is an individual who conceptualizes and spearheads business enterprises, such as startups, that are focused on providing service to the community more than financial gain.
  • social loafing - Social loafing is a reduction of individual effort that tends to occur when people work in groups.
  • social media manager - A social media manager is the individual in an organization trusted with monitoring, contributing to, filtering, measuring and otherwise guiding the social media presence of a brand, product, individual or corporation.
  • social proof - Social proof is a psychological phenomenon in which the actions and attitudes of the people around us (either in real life or online) are considered support to guide our own behavior.
  • social task management - Social task management (STM) is a real-time, collaborative software-based approach to business activities that have traditionally been conducted through sequential processes such as document sharing and status updates.
  • Socialcast - Socialcast is an enterprise social networking and collaboration platform by VMware.
  • Software Process Improvement and Capability dEtermination (SPICE) - SPICE (Software Process Improvement and Capability dEtermination) is an international framework for assessment of software processes developed jointly by the ISO and the IEC.
  • software requirements specification (SRS) - A software requirements specification (SRS) is a comprehensive description of the intended purpose and environment for software under development.
  • spaghetti diagram - A spaghetti diagram is a graphic representation of the flow of some entity, such as a person, a product or a piece of information, as it goes through some process.
  • spike - A spike is a sharp rise in the frequency for a given variable, usually immediately followed by a decrease.
  • SRI International (SRI) - SRI International (SRI), founded as Stanford Research Institute International, is an independent, non-profit research institute headquartered in Menlo Park, California.
  • stand-up - In agile software development, a stand-up is a daily progress meeting, traditionally held within a development area.
  • Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC) - The Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC), originally known as the System Performance Evaluation Cooperative, is a consortium of leading computer hardware and software manufacturers that was founded in 1988 with the goal of defining, establishing, maintaining and endorsing benchmarks applicable to computer systems.
  • startup accelerator - A startup accelerator, sometimes referred to as a seed accelerator, is a business program that supports early-stage, growth-driven companies through education, mentorship and financing.
  • startup company - A startup company is a newly formed business with particular momentum behind it based on perceived demand for its product or service.
  • state diagram (state machine diagram or statechart diagram) - A state diagram, also known as a state machine diagram or statechart diagram, is an illustration of the states an object can attain as well as the transitions between those states in the Unified Modeling Language (UML).
  • statistical process control (SPC) - Statistical process control (SPC) is a scientific, data-driven methodology for monitoring, controlling and improving procedures and products.
  • steering committee - A steering committee is a group of high-level advisors who have been appointed to provide an organization or project with direction.
  • story - In agile software development, a story is a particular business need assigned to the software development team.
  • story point (story points) - Story points are used in agile project management and development to determine the difficulty of implementing a particular story (business need).
  • sunsetting - Sunsetting, in a business context, is intentionally and gradually phasing something out.
  • support-driven development - Support-driven development is a strategy used by developers to create products that fit the needs of customers by designing them based on direct customer feedback.
  • T-shaped employee - A T-shaped employee, in the context of human resources, is an individual that has a depth of knowledge and skills in a particular area of specialization, along with a breadth of knowledge in related areas and the ability to make connections across disciplines.
  • take off - Take off, sometimes spelled as "take-off" or "takeoff," is a part of the cost estimating process in the construction industry.
  • team collaboration - Team collaboration is a communication and project management approach that emphasizes teamwork, innovative thinking and equal participation to achieve objectives.
  • terminology management - Terminology management is the systematized collection of concepts and terms with the purpose of unifying and standardizing technical documentation.
  • The Phoenix Project - The Phoenix Project is a novel about the recovery of a late and over-budget IT project by Gene Kim, George Spafford, and Kevin Behr.
  • think tank - A think tank is an organization that gathers a group of interdisciplinary scholars to perform research around particular policies, issues or ideas.
  • third party - A third party is an entity that is involved in some way in an interaction that is primarily between two other entities.
  • time bank - A time bank is a reciprocity-based work trading system in which hours are the currency.
  • time management - Time management is the coordination of people's tasks and activities to maximize the effectiveness of their efforts.
  • time value of money - Time value of money is the concept that money acquired sooner or held onto longer has a greater worth or potential worth due to the possible accumulation of interest or ROI while that money is saved or invested.
  • timebox - In agile software development, a timebox is a defined period of time during which a task must be accomplished.
  • timeboxing - A timebox is a strictly-enforced limit on how long a given task or project can take: There is no allowance made for the possibility of extension.
  • Top searches of 2008 - What were people searching the WhatIs.
  • Toyota Way - The Toyota Way is a comprehensive expression of the company's management philosophy, which is based on the two foundational principles of Continuous Improvement (kaizen) and Respect for People.
  • triage - Triage is the procedure of assigning levels of priority to tasks or individuals to determine the most effective order in which to deal with them.
  • triple bottom line (3BL) - The triple bottom line (3BL) is an expanded version of the business concept of the bottom line that includes social and environmental results as well as financial results.
  • triple constraint - The project management triangle is also known as the triple constraint, the project management triple constraint and the the iron triangle.
  • two pizza rule - The two pizza rule is a guideline for limiting the number of attendees at a meeting.
  • Unfreeze, Change, Refreeze (Kurt Lewin Change Management Model) - Unfreeze, Change, Refreeze, also known as the Kurt Lewin Change Management Model, is a method for managing change within an organization.
  • unique selling point (USP) - A unique selling proposition (USP, also seen as unique selling point) is a factor that differentiates a product from its competitors, such as the lowest cost, the highest quality or the first-ever product of its kind.
  • Universal Business Language (UBL) - Universal Business Language (UBL) is a royalty-free set of documents based on the ebXML (Electronic Business XML) Core Components Technical Specification, also known as ISO 15000-5.
  • unknown known - An unknown known is information that an individual or organization has in its possession but whose existence, relevance or value has not been realized.
  • use case diagram (UML use case diagram) - A use case is a methodology used in system analysis to identify, clarify, and organize system requirements; a use case diagram is a graphic depiction of the interactions among the elements of a system.
  • V-Model (Vee-Model) - The V-Model, also called the Vee-Model, is a product-development process originally developed in Germany for government defense projects.
  • validated learning - Validated learning is an approach to demonstrating progress against business goals when traditional key performance indicators (KPIs) are not very useful.
  • VAR-to-VAR - VAR-to-VAR is a business model based on cooperation between value-added resellers (VARs) that allows the companies to obtain professional services and solutions outside their specialties or geographic areas.
  • vendor neutral - Vendor neutrality is a business and design approach that seeks to ensure broad compatibility and interchangeability of products and technologies.
  • versioning - Versioning is the creation and management of multiple releases of a product, all of which have the same general function but are improved, upgraded or customized.
  • vision statement - A vision statement is an organization's declaration of its mid-term and long-term goals, stating what they want to become in the future.
  • VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity) - VUCA is an acronym that stands for volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity, a combination of qualities that, taken together, characterize the nature of some difficult conditions and situations.
  • Web Standards Project (WaSP) - The Web Standards Project (WaSP) is a grass roots effort to encourage the main browser makers to create a standard implementation of the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and other Web standards and recommendations of the World Wide Consortium (W3C).
  • webinar - A webinar is an educational, informative or instructional presentation that is made available online, usually as video or audio with slides.
  • WebOps (Web operations) - WebOps, short for Web operations, is the area of IT systems management that deals with the complexities of Web-based applications and the systems that support them.

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