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Routing and switching

Terms related to routers and switches, including definitions about hubs and words and phrases about packet-switched networks.

ABC - WIR

  • ABCD data switch - An ABCD data switch is a small box that lets you hook up to four devices from one PC serial or parallel port on your computer.
  • access layer - The access layer is where host computers and end users connect to the network.
  • adaptive routing (dynamic routing) - Adaptive routing, also called dynamic routing, is a process for determining the optimal path a data packet should follow through a network to arrive at a specific destination.
  • autonomous system (AS) - An autonomous system (AS) in networking is a collection of one or more associated Internet Protocol (IP) prefixes with a clearly defined routing policy that governs how the AS exchanges routing information with other autonomous systems.
  • bogon - A bogon is an illegitimate IP address that falls into a set of IP addresses that have not been officially assigned to an entity by an internet registration institute, such as the Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA).
  • brouter - A brouter (pronounced BRAU-tuhr or sometimes BEE-rau-tuhr) is a network bridge and a router combined in a single product.
  • canonical name - A canonical name is the properly denoted host name of a computer or network server.
  • Carrier Sensitive Routing (CSR) - Carrier Sensitive Routing (CSR) is a network solution that allows Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) subscribers to determine and manipulate the routing of individual calls.
  • CE router (customer edge router) - A CE router (customer edge router) is a router located on the customer premises that provides an Ethernet interface between the customer's LAN and the provider's core network.
  • CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing or supernetting) - CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) -- also known as supernetting -- is a method of assigning Internet Protocol (IP) addresses that improves the efficiency of address distribution and replaces the previous system based on class A, class B and class C networks.
  • circuit switching - Circuit switching is a type of network configuration in which a physical path is obtained and dedicated to a single connection between two endpoints in the network for the duration of a dedicated connection.
  • Cisco Discovery Protocol - The Cisco Discovery Protocol is a Layer-2 protocol used to share data about other Cisco equipment that is directly connected nearby.
  • Cisco IOS (Cisco Internetwork Operating System) - Cisco IOS (Internetwork Operating System) is a proprietary operating system that runs on Cisco Systems routers and switches.
  • Cisco LISP (Location Identifier Separation Protocol) - LISP (Location Identifier Separation Protocol) is a routing and addressing architecture developed by Cisco Systems.
  • Cisco Performance Routing (PfR) - Cisco Performance Routing (PfR) is a way of sending network packets based on intelligent path control.
  • Cisco Systems, Inc. - Cisco Systems, Inc.
  • CNAME - A CNAME specifies an alias or nickname for a canonical name record in a domain name system (DNS) database.
  • core router - A core router is a router that forwards packets to computer hosts within a network (but not between networks).
  • cross-bar switch - In a network, a cross-bar switch is a device that is capable of channeling data between any two devices that are attached to it up to its maximum number of ports.
  • Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) - Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) is a self-maintaining routing protocol for wireless networks.
  • edge provider - An edge provider is a service that a given ISP’s customers connect to that is not inside that provider’s network and does not belong to them.
  • edge router - An edge router is a specialized router located at a network boundary that enables an internal network to connect to external networks.
  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) - Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a network protocol that enables routers to exchange information more efficiently than earlier network protocols, such as Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) or Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).
  • event handler - An event handler is a callback routine that operates asynchronously and handles inputs received into a program.
  • event handling - Event handling is the receipt of an event at some event handler from an event producer and subsequent processes.
  • FCoE (Fibre Channel over Ethernet) - FCoE (Fibre Channel over Ethernet) is a storage protocol that enable Fibre Channel (FC) communications to run directly over Ethernet.
  • field of view (FOV) - Field of view (FOV) is the open observable area a person can see through his or her eyes or via an optical device.
  • fixed-length subnet mask (FLSM) - A fixed-length subnet mask (FLSM) refers to a type of enterprise or provider networking where a block of IP addresses is divided into multiple subnets of equal length (i.
  • flow routing - Flow routing is a network routing technology that takes variations in the flow of data into account to increase routing efficiency.
  • Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) - Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) is a simple protocol that encapsulates packets in order to route other protocols over IP networks, as defined by RFC 2784.
  • GMPLS (Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching or Multiprotocol Lambda Switching) - GMPLS (Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching) is a networking technology that enables fast and reliable network switching of data flows on any type of network infrastructure.
  • GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol or Generic VLAN Registration Protocol) - GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol or Generic VLAN Registration Protocol) is a standards-based protocol that facilitates control of virtual local area networks (VLANs) within a larger network.
  • HELLO packet - A HELLO packet is a special data packet (message) that is sent out periodically from a router to establish and confirm network adjacency relationships to other routers in the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) communications protocol.
  • interconnection - Interconnection is a strategy for ensuring that businesses can privately, securely and directly exchange digital information.
  • IP address (Internet Protocol Address) - This definition is based on Internet Protocol Version 4.
  • IP SLA (Cisco) - IP SLA (Internet protocol service level agreement) is a feature of the Cisco IOS (Internetwork Operating System) that allows an IT professional to collect information about network performance in real time.
  • IPv4 address class - An IPv4 address class is a categorical division of internet protocol addresses in IPv4-based routing.
  • iterative DNS query - An iterative DNS query is a request for a website name or uniform resource locator (URL) that the domain name system (DNS) server responds to with the IP address from its zone file cache, if possible.
  • jumbo frames - A jumbo frame is an Ethernet frame with a payload greater than the standard maximum transmission unit (MTU) of 1,500 bytes.
  • Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) - Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is an extension of the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) used by an internet service provider (ISP) to enable the operation of a virtual private network (VPN) over the internet.
  • leaf-spine (leaf-spine architecture) - Leaf-spine is a two-layer network topology composed of leaf switches and spine switches.
  • logical router - A logical router is a configured partition of a traditional network hardware, or "physical," router.
  • Martian address (Martian packet) - A Martian address is a source or destination IP address that apparently does not exist on Planet Earth and is, thus, invalid and/or non-routable.
  • Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit - Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit is a free utility IT can use to determine whether or not its infrastructure is prepared for a migration to a new operating system, server version or cloud-based deployment.
  • mrouter (multicast router) - An mrouter, or multicast router, is a router program that distinguishes between multicast and unicast packets and determines how they should be distributed along the Multicast Internet (sometimes known as the Multicast Backbone or MBone).
  • Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) - Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a protocol-agnostic routing technique designed to speed up and shape traffic flows across enterprise wide area and service provider networks.
  • NetFlow - NetFlow is a network protocol developed by Cisco for the collection and monitoring of network traffic flow data that is generated by most Cisco routers and switches.
  • network automation - Network automation is a methodology in which software automatically configures, provisions, manages and tests network devices.
  • network switch - A network switch is a hardware device that channels incoming data from multiple input ports to a specific output port that will take it toward its intended destination.
  • northbound interface / southbound interface - A northbound interface is an interface that allows a particular component of a network to communicate with a higher-level component.
  • one-armed router - A one-armed router is a router that routes traffic between virtual local area networks (VLANs).
  • OpenFlow - OpenFlow is a protocol that allows a server to tell network switches where to send packets.
  • optical line terminal (OLT) - An optical line terminal (OLT) is a device that is located at the service provider's central office and is the endpoint of a passive optical network (PON).
  • OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) - The OSPF router protocol is used to find the best path for packets as they pass through a set of connected networks.
  • OVSDB (Open vSwitch Database Management Protocol) - The Open vSwitch Database Management Protocol (OVSDB) is an OpenFlow configuration protocol that is designed to manage Open vSwitch implementations.
  • physical layer - Located at the lowest layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communications model, the physical layer's function is to transport data using electrical, mechanical or procedural interfaces.
  • plane (in networking) - A plane, in a networking context, is one of three integral components of a telecommunications architecture.
  • poison reverse - In a computer network that uses the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) or other distance vector routing protocol, poison reverse is a loop avoidance process.
  • presentation layer - Residing at Layer 6 of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communications model, the presentation layer ensures that the communications that pass through it are in the appropriate form for the recipient application.
  • recursive DNS query - A recursive DNS query is a request from a client for a website that must be responded to with either the sought response or an error message stating that the site does not exist.
  • recursive DNS server - A recursive DNS server is a domain name system server that takes website name or URL (uniform resource locator) requests from users and checks the records attained from authoritative DNS servers for the associated IP address.
  • RFC 1918 - Request for Comment 1918 (RFC 1918), “Address Allocation for Private Internets,” is the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) memorandum on methods of assigning of private IP addresses on TCP/IP networks.
  • rocker switch - A rocker switch is an on/off switch that rocks (rather than trips) when pressed, which means one side of the switch is raised while the other side is depressed much like a rocking horse rocks back and forth.
  • route summarization (route aggregation) - Route summarization -- also known as route aggregation -- is a method to minimize the number of routing tables in an Internet Protocol (IP) network.
  • router - A router is a physical or virtual appliance that passes information between two or more packet-switched computer networks.
  • Routing Information Protocol (RIP) - Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a distance vector protocol that uses hop count as its primary metric.
  • routing table - A routing table is a set of rules, often viewed in table format, that is used to determine where data packets traveling over an Internet Protocol (IP) network will be directed.
  • SDN controller (software-defined networking controller) - An SDN controller is an application in a software-defined networking (SDN) architecture that manages flow control for improved network management and application performance.
  • segment routing - Segment routing is a computer networking process used by networking and traffic engineering professionals that organizes collections of information, or packets, to follow a linear set of instructions.
  • service chaining - Service chaining, in an information technology (IT) context, is the addition of software-defined networking (SDN) capabilities in a specific sequence.
  • Session layer - In the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communications model, the session layer resides at Layer 5 and manages the setup and teardown of the association between two communicating endpoints.
  • session-based routing - Session-based routing is a type of routing architecture that is application-centric and designed to route entire sessions instead of individual packets.
  • short message service center (SMSC) - A short message service center (SMSC) is the portion of a wireless network that handles SMS operations, such as routing, forwarding and storing incoming text messages on their way to desired endpoints.
  • Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) - Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) is a portion of International Telecommunication Union (ITU) recommendation Q.
  • smart home hub (home automation hub) - A smart home hub is hardware or software that connects devices on a home automation network and controls communications among them.
  • SMS gateway - An SMS gateway is a website that allows users to send SMS messages from a web browser to people within the cell served by that gateway.
  • softswitch - Softswitch (software switch) is a generic term for any open application program interface (API) software used to bridge a public switched telephone network (PSTN) and Voice over Internet Protocol (VOiP) by separating the call control functions of a phone call from the media gateway (transport layer).
  • software-defined networking (SDN) - Software-defined networking (SDN) is an architecture that abstracts different, distinguishable layers of a network to make networks agile and flexible.
  • split horizon - Split horizon is a method used by distance vector protocols to prevent network routing loops.
  • Squid proxy server - Squid is a Unix-based proxy server that caches Internet content closer to a requestor than its original point of origin.
  • switch-on-a-chip (SOC) - A switch-on-a-chip (SOC) is a network - typically a storage network - switch (a device that channels incoming data flow from any of multiple input ports to the output port appropriate for its destination) that is built into a single microchip (integrated circuit).
  • switching fabric - Switching fabric is the combination of hardware and software that moves data coming in to a network node out by the correct port (door) to the next node in the network.
  • top-of-rack switching - Top-of-rack switching refers to a distributed data center architecture where one or more Ethernet switches is installed in a rack, then uplinked using high-bandwidth fiber optic connections to a central, high-density distribution point.
  • tunneling or port forwarding - Tunneling is the transmission of data intended for use only within a private, usually corporate network through a public network in such a way that the routing nodes in the public network are unaware that the transmission is part of a private network.
  • unified computing system (UCS) - A unified computing system (UCS) is is a converged data center architecture that integrates computing, networking and storage resources to increase efficiency and enable centralized management.
  • Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) - Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) is a subnet -- a segmented piece of a larger network -- design strategy where all subnet masks can have varying sizes.
  • vCPE (virtual customer premises equipment) - Virtual customer premises equipment (also referred to as vCPE or cloud CPE) are enterprise network services delivered through software.
  • virtual routing and forwarding (VRF) - Virtual routing and forwarding (VRF) is a technology included in Internet Protocol (IP) network routers that enables multiple instances of a routing table to exist in a virtual router and work simultaneously.
  • white box switch - A white box switch is built on a low-cost, bare metal device that runs on merchant silicon.
  • wireless router - A wireless router is a device in a WLAN (wireless local area network) that determines the next network point to which a packet should be forwarded toward its destination.
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