Browse Definitions :

Security management

Terms related to security management, including definitions about intrusion detection systems (IDS) and words and phrases about asset management, security policies, security monitoring, authorization and authentication.

DIR - GRE

  • directory harvest attack (DHA) - A directory harvest attack (DHA) is an attempt to determine the valid e-mail addresses associated with an e-mail server so that they can be added to a spam database.
  • directory traversal - Directory traversal is a form of HTTP exploit in which a hacker uses the software on a Web server to access data in a directory other than the server's root directory.
  • disaster recovery plan (DRP) - A company's disaster recovery policy is enhanced with a documented DR plan that formulates strategies, and outlines preparation work and testing.
  • disposable email - What is a disposable email?Disposable email is a service that allows a registered user to receive email at a temporary address that expires after a certain time period elapses.
  • distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack - A distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack is an attack in which multiple compromised computer systems attack a target, such as a server, website or other network resource, and cause a denial of service for users of the targeted resource.
  • DMZ (networking) - In computer networks, a DMZ (demilitarized zone), also sometimes known as a perimeter network or a screened subnetwork, is a physical or logical subnet that separates an internal local area network (LAN) from other untrusted networks, usually the internet.
  • DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) - DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) are a set of Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standards created to address vulnerabilities in the Domain Name System (DNS) and protect it from online threats.
  • document sanitization - In addition to making sure the document text doesn’t openly divulge anything it shouldn’t, document sanitization includes removing document metadata that could pose a privacy or security risk.
  • domain fluxing - Domain fluxing is a technique used by botnet operators for their command-and-control infrastructures to avoid detection by security technologies and researchers attempting to shut their botnets down.
  • DomainKeys - DomainKeys is an anti-spam software application in development at Yahoo that uses a form of public key cryptography to authenticate the sender's domain.
  • dongle - A dongle (pronounced DONG-uhl) is a mechanism for ensuring that only authorized users can copy or use specific software applications, especially very expensive programs.
  • drive-by pharming - Drive-by pharming is a vulnerability exploitation method in which the attacker takes advantage of an inadequately unprotected broadband router to gain access to user data.
  • drive-by spamming - Drive-by spamming is a variation of drive-by hacking in which the perpetrators gain access to a vulnerable wireless local area network (WLAN) and use that access to send huge volumes of spam.
  • DSO exploit (data source object exploit) - A data source object (DSO) exploit is a form of spyware that takes advantage of data binding to gain access to the hard drive of a computer connected to the Internet.
  • due diligence - Due diligence definition: Due diligence is the process of systematically researching and verifying the accuracy of a particular statement.
  • dumb network - A dumb network is one that provides the physical interconnection between nodes but not much processing to support signaling.
  • dynamic packet filter - A dynamic packet filter is a firewall facility that can monitor the state of active connections and use this information to determine which network packets to allow through the firewall.
  • e-mail extractor - An e-mail extractor is a program that finds e-mail addresses and stores them in a list file, with each line containing one e-mail address.
  • eavesdropping - Eavesdropping is the unauthorized real-time interception of a private communication, such as a phone call, instant message, videoconference or fax transmission.
  • Echelon - Echelon is an officially unacknowledged U.
  • electro-optical fingerprint recognition - Electro-optical fingerprint recognition is a biometric technology that provides for the scanning, comparison, and identification of fingerprints without the traditional need for ink and paper.
  • Electrohippies Collective - The Electrohippies Collective is an international group of hacktivists based in Oxfordshire, England, whose purpose is to express its displeasure with the use of the Internet "as a tool for corporate communications and propaganda.
  • Electronic Code Book (ECB) - Electronic Code Book (ECB) is a mode of operation for a block cipher, with the characteristic that each possible block of plaintext has a defined corresponding ciphertext value and vice versa.
  • electronic discovery (e-discovery or ediscovery) - Electronic discovery (also called e-discovery or ediscovery) refers to any process in which electronic data is sought, located, secured, and searched with the intent of using it as evidence in a civil or criminal legal case.
  • Elk Cloner - Elk Cloner was the first computer virus known to have spread in the wild.
  • elliptical curve cryptography (ECC) - Elliptical curve cryptography (ECC) is a public key encryption technique based on elliptic curve theory that can be used to create faster, smaller, and more efficient cryptographic keys.
  • email spoofing - Email spoofing is the forgery of an email header so that the message appears to have originated from someone or somewhere other than the actual source.
  • employee monitoring - Employee monitoring is the use of various methods of workplace surveillance to gather information about the activities and locations of staff members.
  • employee onboarding and offboarding - Employee onboarding and offboarding are two core HR activities that are gaining in importance.
  • encoding and decoding - Encoding is the process of putting a sequence of characters (letters, numbers, punctuation, and certain symbols) into a specialized digital format for efficient transmission or transfer.
  • Encrypting File System (EFS) - The Encrypting File System (EFS) is a feature of the Windows 2000 operating system that lets any file or folder be stored in encrypted form and decrypted only by an individual user and an authorized recovery agent.
  • encryption - In computing, encryption is the method by which plaintext or any other type of data is converted from a readable form to an encoded version that can only be decoded by another entity if they have access to a decryption key.
  • end-to-end encryption (E2EE) - End-to-end encryption is a secure method of transferring data from one end device to another without allowing third-party interference.
  • endpoint fingerprinting - Endpoint fingerprinting is a feature of enterprise network access control (NAC) products that enables discovery, classification and monitoring of connected devices, including non-traditional network endpoints such as smartcard readers, HVAC systems, medical equipment and IP-enabled door locks.
  • endpoint security (endpoint security management) - Endpoint security is an approach to network protection that requires each computing device on a corporate network to comply with certain standards before network access is granted.
  • endpoint security management - Endpoint security management is a policy-based approach to network security that requires endpoint devices to comply with specific criteria before they are granted access to network resources.
  • ENISA (European Network and Information Security Agency) - The European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) is a European Union (EU) agency dedicated to preventing and addressing network security and information security problems.
  • Enterprise Identity Mapping (EIM) - Enterprise Identity Mapping (EIM) is an open architecture from IBM for helping an enterprise manage the multiple user registries and identities that enable a computer user to access multiple applications with a single sign-on.
  • enterprise mobility management (EMM) - Enterprise mobility management (EMM) is software that allows organizations to securely enable employee use of mobile devices and applications.
  • enterprise security governance - Enterprise security governance is a company's strategy to reduce risk by protecting systems and information, as well as its execution of that strategy.
  • erasure coding - Erasure coding (EC) is a method of data protection in which data is broken into fragments, expanded and encoded with redundant data pieces and stored across a set of different locations or storage media.
  • Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES) - The Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES) is a standard for encrypted communications that was approved by the U.
  • ethical hacker - An ethical hacker, also referred to as a white hat hacker, is an information security expert who systematically attempts to penetrate a computer system, network, application or other computing resource on behalf of its owners -- and with their permission -- to find security vulnerabilities that a malicious hacker could potentially exploit.
  • ethical worm - An ethical worm is a program that automates network-based distribution of security patches for known vulnerabilities.
  • EU Data Protection Directive (Directive 95/46/EC) - EU Data Protection Directive (also known as Directive 95/46/EC) is a regulation adopted by the European Union to protect the privacy and protection of all personal data collected for or about citizens of the EU, especially as it relates to processing, using or exchanging such data.
  • European Computer Driving License (ECDL) - The European Computer Driving License (ECDL) is a certification for qualified computer operators in the same way that a regular driving license is a certification for qualified vehicle operators - although it differs in that one may lawfully operate a computer without a computer driving license.
  • Evaluation Assurance Level (EAL) - The Evaluation Assurance Level (EAL) is a grade assigned to an IT product or system after completing a Common Criteria security evaluation.
  • event handler - An event handler is a callback routine that operates asynchronously and handles inputs received into a program.
  • event handling - Event handling is the receipt of an event at some event handler from an event producer and subsequent processes.
  • event stream processing (ESP) - Event stream processing (ESP) is a software capacity designed to support implementation of event-driven architectures.
  • evil maid attack - An evil maid attack is a security exploit that targets a computing device that has been shut down and left unattended.
  • evil twin - An evil twin, in security, is a rogue wireless access point that masquerades as a legitimate hot spot.
  • extrusion prevention - Extrusion prevention, also called exfiltration prevention, is the practice of stopping data leaks by filtering outbound network traffic and preventing unauthorized packets from moving outside the network.
  • facial recognition - Facial recognition is a category of biometric software that maps an individual's facial features mathematically and stores the data as a faceprint.
  • FACTA (Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act) - FACTA (Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act) is an amendment to FCRA (Fair Credit Reporting Act ) that was added, primarily, to protect consumers from identity theft.
  • FairPlay - FairPlay is a digital rights management (DRM) program from Apple.
  • false acceptance (type II error) - False acceptance, also called a type II error, is a mistake occasionally made by biometric security systems.
  • false rejection (type I error) - False rejection, also called a type I error, is a mistake occasionally made by biometric security systems.
  • Faraday cage - A Faraday cage is a metallic enclosure that prevents the entry or escape of an electromagnetic field (EM field).
  • FCRA (Fair Credit Reporting Act) - FCRA (Fair Credit Reporting Act) is a United States Law that regulates how consumer credit information is collected, used and shared.
  • Federal Information Processing Standardization 140 - Federal Information Processing Standardization 140 is a standard that specifies security requirements for cryptographic modules used by the U.
  • federated identity management - Federated identity management (FIM) is an arrangement that can be made between multiple enterprises to let subscribers use the same identification data to obtain access to the networks of all the enterprises in the group.
  • FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974) - FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974) is legislation that protects the privacy of students' personally identifiable information (PII).
  • FFIEC compliance (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council) - FFIEC compliance is conformance to a set of standards for online banking issued in October 2005 by the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC).
  • FFIEC Cybersecurity Assessment Tool - The Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council developed the Cybersecurity Assessment Tool to help organizations identify cybersecurity risks and determine their level of preparedness.
  • Financial Services Authority (FSA) - The FSA (Financial Services Authority) is an independent, non-governmental body that regulates the financial services industry in the UK, including most financial services markets, exchanges and firms.
  • finger vein ID - Finger vein ID is a biometric authentication system that matches the vascular pattern in an individual's finger to previously obtained data.
  • fingernail storage - Fingernail storage is a method of writing data onto a human fingernail using a pulsed laser.
  • fingerscanning (fingerprint scanning) - Fingerscanning, also called fingerprint scanning, is the process of electronically obtaining and storing human fingerprints.
  • firefighting - Firefighting is an emergency allocation of resources, required to deal with an unforeseen problem.
  • Firefox 3.5 - Firefox 3.5 is a version of the Mozilla Foundation's Web browser that was released in June 2009.
  • Firesheep - Firesheep is a Firefox plug-in that automates session hijacking attacks over unsecured Wi-Fi networks.
  • Firestarter - Firestarter is an open source firewall program for personal computers and servers that support Linux kernels 2.
  • firewall - In computing, a firewall is software or firmware that protects the resources of a private network from users on other networks.
  • Firewall Builder (Fwbuilder) - Firewall Builder, also called Fwbuilder, is a vendor-neutral configuration and management application for firewalls that is intended primarily for Linux and that supports the OpenBSD Packet Filter, Cisco PIX Series security devices, iptables, and ipfilter.
  • Flexible Mandatory Access Control (FMAC) - Flexible Mandatory Access Control (FMAC) is an ongoing project intended to enhance the Sun Microsystems OpenSolaris operating platform by adding two security technologies: Flux Advanced Security Kernel (Flask) and Type Enforcement (TE).
  • footprinting - In the study of DNA, footprinting is the method used to identify the nucleic acid sequence that binds with proteins.
  • forensic - Forensic, in a general sense, means "related to or used in courts of law" or "used for formal public debate or discussion.
  • forensic watermark (digital watermark) - A forensic watermark, also called a digital watermark, is a sequence of characters or code embedded in a digital document, image, video or computer program to uniquely identify its originator and authorized user.
  • four eyes principle - The four eyes principle is a requirement that two individuals review and approve some action before it can be taken.
  • Freedom of Information Act 2000 - The Freedom of Information Act 2000 is an act of the United Kingdom (UK) Parliament defining the ways in which the public may obtain access to government-held information.
  • frequency-hopping spread spectrum - Frequency hopping is one of two basic modulation techniques used in spread spectrum signal transmission.
  • full-disk encryption (FDE) - What is full-disk encryption (FDE)?Full-disk encryption (FDE) is encryption at the hardware level.
  • fuzz testing (fuzzing) - Fuzz testing (fuzzing) is a technique used by ethical hackers to discover security loopholes in software, operating systems or networks by massive inputting of random data to the system in an attempt to make it crash.
  • GajShield - GajShield Infotech is an Indian firewall vendor and security services provider.
  • gaming the system - Gaming the system is manipulation or exploitation of the rules designed to govern a given system in an attempt to gain an advantage over other users.
  • garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) - GIGO (garbage in, garbage out) is a concise expression of a concept common to computer science and mathematics: the quality of output is determined by the quality of the input.
  • General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) - General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is legislation that will update and unify data privacy laws across the European Union.
  • geolocation - Geolocation is the detection of the physical location of an Internet connected computing device.
  • globbing - Globbing is the process of expanding a non-specific file name containing a wildcard character into a set of specific file names that exist in storage on a computer, server, or network.
  • goat - In biometric verification, a goat is a system end-user who is refused access to the system because their biometric data pattern is outside the range recognized by the system.
  • going dark - Going dark describes a scenario in which communication appears to have ceased, but in reality has just moved from a public communication channel to a private, encrypted channel.
  • Good Practice Guide 13 - Good Practice Guide 13 defines requirements for protective security monitoring that local authorities must comply with in order to prevent accidental or malicious data loss.
  • Google dork - A Google dork is an employee who unknowingly exposes sensitive corporate information on the Internet.
  • Government Information Security Reform Act - The Government Information Security Reform Act (formerly known as the Thompson-Liebermann Act) is a federal law that required U.
  • graduated security - Graduated security is approach to information technology (IT) security that provides several levels of protection based on threats, risks, available technology, support services, time, politics and budget.
  • graphical password or graphical user authentication (GUA) - A graphical password is an authentication system that works by having the user select from images, in a specific order, presented in a graphical user interface (GUI).
  • gray hat (or grey hat) - Gray hat describes a cracker (or, if you prefer, hacker) who exploits a security weakness in a computer system or product in order to bring the weakness to the attention of the owners.
  • gray market - The gray market (sometimes spelled as "grey market") is the collective system of unauthorized sales channels for products.
  • greynet (or graynet) - Greynet is a term for the use of unauthorized applications on a corporate network.

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