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Security

Terms related to security management, including definitions about intrusion detection systems (IDS) and words and phrases about asset management, security policies, security monitoring, authorization and authentication.

STE - X.5

  • stealth virus - A stealth virus is a computer virus that uses various mechanisms to avoid detection by antivirus software.
  • storage encryption - Storage encryption is the use of encryption/decryption of backed-up and archived data, both in transit and on storage media.
  • storage security - Storage security is the group of parameters and settings that make storage resources available to authorized users and trusted networks -- and unavailable to other entities.
  • stream cipher - A stream cipher is a method of encrypting text (to produce ciphertext) in which a cryptographic key and algorithm are applied to each binary digit in a data stream, one bit at a time.
  • strong authentication - Although it is not a standardized term, with set criteria, strong authentication can be said to be any method of verifying the identity of a user or device that is intrinsically stringent enough to ensure the security of the system it protects by withstanding any attacks it is likely to encounter.
  • strong password - A strong password is one that is designed to be hard for a person or program to guess.
  • surveillance metadata - Surveillance metadata is details about data pertaining to the actions of an observed party.
  • Suspicious Activity Report (SAR) - A Suspicious Activity Report (SAR) is a document that financial institutions must file with the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) following a suspected incident of money laundering or fraud.
  • Symantec PartnerNet - Symantec PartnerNet is web-based portal that was developed by security vendor Symantec to provide information, tools and benefits to its channel partner community.
  • SYN flood (half open attack) - SYN flooding is a method that the user of a hostile client program can use to conduct a denial-of-service (DoS) attack on a computer server.
  • SYN scanning - SYN scanning is a tactic that a malicious hacker can use to determine the state of a communications port without establishing a full connection.
  • synthetic identity theft - Synthetic identity theft is the fraudulent use of stolen personally identifiable information (PIF) that is combined with made-up details to create a false identity.
  • TCP Wrapper - TCP Wrapper is a public domain computer program that provides firewall services for UNIX servers.
  • tcpdump - Tcpdump is an open source command-line tool for monitoring (sniffing) network traffic.
  • Thing hacking - Thing hacking is an attack that exploits a vulnerability in a connected non-computing device – a Thing, in the Internet of Things -- to gain control of the device or access to a network it connects to.
  • threat actor - A threat actor, also called a malicious actor or bad actor, is an entity that is partially or wholly responsible for an incident that impacts – or has the potential to impact -- an organization's security.
  • threat ignorance - Threat ignorance is a concept used by security professionals to determine the level of vulnerability a company or user’s computer or system has to an attack.
  • threat intelligence (cyber threat intelligence) - Threat intelligence, also known as cyber threat intelligence (CTI), is information collected from various sources about current or potential attacks that threaten an organization.
  • threat intelligence feed (TI feed) - A threat intelligence feed (TI feed) is an ongoing stream of data related to potential or current threats to an organization's security.
  • threat intelligence service (TI service) - A threat intelligence service (TI service) is a provider of information about current or emerging threats that could negatively impact the security of a customer’s organization.
  • token - In general, a token is an object that represents something else, such as another object (either physical or virtual), or an abstract concept as, for example, a gift is sometimes referred to as a token of the giver's esteem for the recipient.
  • tokenization - Tokenization is the process of replacing sensitive data with unique identification symbols that retain all the essential information about the data without compromising its security.
  • Tor browser - The Tor (the onion routing) browser is a web browser designed for anonymous web surfing and protection against traffic analysis.
  • transitive trust - Transitive trust is a two-way relationship automatically created between parent and child domains in a Microsoft Active Directory forest.
  • Transport Layer Security (TLS) - Transport Layer Security (TLS) is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard protocol that provides authentication, privacy and data integrity between two communicating computer applications.
  • triage - Triage is the procedure of assigning levels of priority to tasks or individuals to determine the most effective order in which to deal with them.
  • troubleshooting - Troubleshooting is a systematic approach to problem solving that is often used to find and correct issues with complex machines, electronics, computers and software systems.
  • TrueCrypt - TrueCrypt is a cross-platform open source program for file and full disk encryption (FDE).
  • Trusted Cloud Initiative - The Trusted Cloud Initiative is a program of the Cloud Security Alliance industry group created to help cloud service providers develop industry-recommended, secure and interoperable identity, access and compliance management configurations and practices.
  • trusted computing - Trusted computing is a broad term that refers to technologies and proposals for resolving computer security problems through hardware enhancements and associated software modifications.
  • trusted computing base (TCB) - A trusted computing base (TCB) is everything in a computing system that provides a secure environment for operations.
  • Trusted Computing Group (TCG) - The Trusted Computing Group (TCG) is a not-for-profit organization that was formed in 2003 to define, develop and promote security specifications for computers and networks.
  • Trusted Platform Module (TPM) - A Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is a specialized chip on an endpoint device that stores RSA encryption keys specific to the host system for hardware authentication.
  • tunneling or port forwarding - Tunneling is the transmission of data intended for use only within a private, usually corporate network through a public network in such a way that the routing nodes in the public network are unaware that the transmission is part of a private network.
  • two-factor authentication (2FA) - Two-factor authentication (2FA), sometimes referred to as two-step verification or dual-factor authentication, is a security process in which users provide two different authentication factors to verify themselves.
  • Twofish - Twofish is a symmetric-key block cipher with a block size of 128 bits and variable-length key of size 128, 192 or 256 bits.
  • unified endpoint management (UEM) - Unified endpoint management (UEM) is an approach to securing and controlling desktop computers, laptops, smartphones and tablets in a connected, cohesive manner from a single console.
  • unified threat management (UTM) - Unified threat management (UTM) describes an information security (infosec) system that provides a single point of protection against threats, including viruses, worms, spyware and other malware, and network attacks.
  • user account provisioning - User account provisioning is a business process for creating and managing access to resources in an information technology (IT) system.
  • Verizon Data Breach Investigations Report (DBIR) - The Verizon Data Breach Investigations Report (DBIR) is an annual publication that provides data from and analysis of information security incidents, with a specific focus on data breaches.
  • Verizon VERIS (Vocabulary for Event Recording and Incident Sharing) Framework - The VERIS (Vocabulary for Event Recording and Incident Sharing) Framework is a taxonomy that standardizes how security incidents are described and categorized.
  • virtual browser - A virtual browser is a browser that is logically isolated from the underlying computer's operating system (OS).
  • virtual firewall - A virtual firewall is a firewall device or service that provides network traffic filtering and monitoring for virtual machines (VMs) in a virtualized environment.
  • virtual honeypot - A virtual honeypot is software that emulates a vulnerable system or network to attract intruders and study their behavior.
  • virtual local area network hopping (VLAN hopping) - Virtual local area network hopping (VLAN hopping) is a method of attacking the network resources of a VLAN by sending packets to a port not usually accessible from an end system.
  • virtual machine escape - Virtual machine escape is an exploit in which the attacker runs code on a VM that allows an operating system running within it to break out and interact directly with the hypervisor.
  • virtual NAS - Virtual NAS is a virtual machine (VM) that acts as a file server for network-attached storage (NAS).
  • virtualization-based security (VBS) - Virtualization-based security (VBS) is technology that abstracts computer processes from the underlying operating system and, in some cases, hardware.
  • virus (computer virus) - A computer virus is malicious code that replicates by copying itself to another program, computer boot sector or document and changes how a computer works.
  • virus hoax - A virus hoax is a false warning about a computer virus.
  • VMware Identity Manager - VMware Identity Manager is an Identity as a Service (IDaaS) offering that provides single sign-on (SSO) capabilities and user-based controls for web, cloud and mobile applications.
  • voice logger - A voice logger is a device or program used to record audio information from telephones, radios, microphones and other sources for storage on a computer's hard drive or removable media.
  • VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity) - VUCA is an acronym that stands for volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity, a combination of qualities that, taken together, characterize the nature of some difficult conditions and situations.
  • vulnerability (information technology) - A vulnerability, in information technology (IT), is a flaw in code or design that creates a potential point of security compromise for an endpoint or network.
  • vulnerability and patch management - Vulnerability management is a pro-active approach to managing network security.
  • vulnerability assessment (vulnerability analysis) - A vulnerability assessment is the process of defining, identifying, classifying and prioritizing vulnerabilities in computer systems, applications and network infrastructures.
  • vulnerability disclosure - Vulnerability disclosure is the practice of reporting security flaws in computer software or hardware.
  • vulnerability management - Vulnerability management is a pro-active approach to managing network security through reducing the likelihood that flaws in code or design compromise the security of an endpoint or network.
  • vulnerability management planning - Vulnerability management planning is a comprehensive approach to the development of a continuous and repetitive system of practices and processes designed to identify, analyze and address flaws in hardware or software that could serve as attack vectors.
  • WannaCry ransomware - The WannaCry ransomware is a worm that spreads by exploiting vulnerabilities in the Windows operating system.
  • war driving (access point mapping) - War driving, also called access point mapping, is the act of locating and possibly exploiting connections to wireless local area networks while driving around a city or elsewhere.
  • web server security - Web server security is the protection of information assets that can be accessed from a Web server.
  • What is a private cloud? - Private cloud is a type of cloud computing that delivers similar advantages to public cloud, including scalability and self-service, but through a proprietary architecture.
  • What is BCDR? Business continuity and disaster recovery guide - Business continuity (BC) and disaster recovery (DR) are closely related practices that support an organization's ability to remain operational after an adverse event.
  • What is cybersecurity? - Cybersecurity is the protection of internet-connected systems such as hardware, software and data from cyberthreats.
  • What is identity and access management? Guide to IAM - Identity and access management (IAM) is a framework of business processes, policies and technologies that facilitates the management of electronic or digital identities.
  • What is IT/OT convergence? Everything you need to know - IT/OT convergence is the integration of information technology (IT) systems with operational technology (OT) systems.
  • What is multifactor authentication and how does it work? - Multifactor authentication (MFA) is a security technology that requires more than one method of authentication from independent categories of credentials to verify a user's identity for a login or other transaction.
  • What is risk analysis? - Risk analysis is the process of identifying and analyzing potential issues that could negatively impact key business initiatives or projects.
  • What is steganography? - Steganography (pronounced STEHG-uh-NAH-gruhf-ee, from Greek steganos, or "covered," and graphie, or "writing") is the hiding of a secret message within an ordinary message and the extraction of it at its destination.
  • What is Testing as a Service (TaaS)? - Testing as a service (TaaS) is an outsourcing model in which testing activities associated with some of an organization's business activities are performed by a service provider rather than in-house employees.
  • white hat hacker - A white hat hacker -- or ethical hacker -- is an individual who uses hacking skills to identify security vulnerabilities in hardware, software or networks.
  • Wi-Fi (802.11x standard) - Wi-Fi is the popular term for high-frequency wireless local area network (WLAN) technology and a standard that has gained acceptance in many companies as an alternative to a wired LAN.
  • Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) - Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a security standard for computing devices equipped with wireless internet connections.
  • Wiegand - Wiegand is the trade name for a technology used in card readers and sensors, particularly for access control applications.
  • wildcard certificate - A wildcard certificate is a digital certificate that is applied to a domain and all its subdomains.
  • Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) - Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a security protocol, specified in the IEEE Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) standard, 802.
  • Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) - Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) is the security level for Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) applications.
  • Wireshark - Wireshark is an open source tool for analyzing packets and profiling network traffic.
  • X.509 certificate - An X.509 certificate is a digital certificate that uses the widely accepted international X.
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