Browse Definitions :

Threat management

Terms related to security threats, including definitions about anti-virus programs or firewalls and words and phrases about malware, viruses, Trojans and other security attacks.

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  • integer overflow - Integer overflow is the result of trying to place into computer memory an integer (whole number) that is too large for the integer data type in a given system.
  • integrated risk management (IRM) - Integrated risk management (IRM) is an approach to risk management that uses a set of practices and processes to improve an organization's security, risk tolerance profile and strategic decision-making.
  • integrated threat management - Integrated threat management is a comprehensive approach to network security that addresses multiple types of malware, as well as blended threats and spam, and protects from intrusion at both the gateway and the endpoint levels.
  • intelligent video - Intelligent video is digital video technology integrated with analytical software.
  • International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) - IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm) is an encryption algorithm developed at ETH in Zurich, Switzerland.
  • Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) - The Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) is a website and that offers users a standardized mechanism and interface to report suspected cybercrime or other illegal activity facilitated by the internet.
  • Internet Key Exchange (IKE) - The Internet Key Exchange (IKE) is an IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) standard protocol used to ensure security for virtual private network (VPN) negotiation and remote host or network access.
  • Internet Storm Center - The Internet Storm Center is a website provided by the SANS Institute that monitors current online security attacks and publishes information about them.
  • intrusion detection system (IDS) - An intrusion detection system (IDS) is a system that monitors network traffic for suspicious activity and alerts when such activity is discovered.
  • intrusion prevention system (IPS) - An intrusion prevention system (IPS) is a network security and threat prevention tool.
  • inverse mapping - Inverse mapping is a procedure used to create associations between real or virtual objects that involves some type of reversal of another process or concept.
  • IoT botnet (Internet of Things botnet) - An IoT botnet (Internet of Things botnet) is a group of hacked computers, smart appliances and Internet-connected devices that have been co-opted for illicit purposes.
  • IoT security (internet of things security) - IoT security is the technology area concerned with safeguarding connected devices and networks in the internet of things (IoT).
  • IP Spoofing - IP spoofing is the crafting of Internet Protocol (IP) packets with a source IP address that has been modified to impersonate another computer system, or to hide the identity of the sender, or both.
  • IP surveillance - IP surveillance is a digitized and networked version of closed-circuit television (CCTV).
  • IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) - IPsec, also known as the Internet Protocol Security or IP Security protocol, defines the architecture for security services for IP network traffic.
  • ISA Server (Internet Security and Acceleration Server) - Microsoft's ISA Server (Internet Security and Acceleration Server) is the successor to Microsoft's Proxy Server 2.
  • ISO 27001 - ISO 27001 (formally known as ISO/IEC 27001:2005) is a specification for an information security management system (ISMS).
  • IT systems management - Systems management is the administration of the information technology systems in an enterprise data center.
  • IT-ISAC (Information Technology Information Sharing and Analysis Center) - IT-ISAC (Information Technology Information Sharing and Analysis Center) is a facility founded in January, 2001 by nineteen prominent IT industry companies (including Oracle, IBM, EDS, and Computer Sciences) to serve as a central repository for security-related information.
  • JavaScript hijacking - JavaScript hijacking is a technique that an attacker can use to read sensitive data from a vulnerable Web application, particularly one using Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML).
  • juice jacking - Juice jacking is a security exploit in which an infected USB charging station is used to compromise connected devices.
  • Kaptoxa - Kaptoxa (pronounced kar-toe-sha) is a type of point-of-sale (POS) malware designed to compromise payment information systems.
  • Kaspersky Lab - Kaspersky Lab is a security software and services company with a presence in 200 countries and territories around the world.
  • Kerberos - Kerberos is the authentication protocol used by most operating systems.
  • key - In cryptography, a key is a variable value that is applied using an algorithm to a string or block of unencrypted text to produce encrypted text, or to decrypt encrypted text.
  • key chain - A key chain is a series of keys that can be created to help ensure secure communication between routers in a network.
  • key fob - A key fob is a small, programmable hardware device that provides access to a physical object.
  • key string - A key string is the authentication code included in each key in a key chain, which is a series of keys that can be created to help ensure secure communication between routers in a network.
  • keyboard vibration attack - Although there have been no reports of keyboard vibration attacks in the wild, Georgia Tech researchers found a method to exploit the accelerometer in an iPhone to record keystrokes.
  • keylogger (keystroke logger or system monitor) - A keylogger, sometimes called a keystroke logger or system monitor, is a type of surveillance technology used to monitor and record each keystroke typed on a specific computer's keyboard.
  • keyword stuffing - Keyword stuffing is the practice of inserting a large number of keywords into Web page content and meta tags in the attempt to artificially increase the page's ranking in search results.
  • Kraken - Kraken is the name given to a family of malware that's currently being used to create what the security firm Damballa has called "the world's largest botnet.
  • LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) - LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a Cisco-proprietary version of EAP, the authentication protocol used in wireless networks and Point-to-Point connections.
  • Learning Guide: Spyware - Why spyware isn't just a home-user problem.
  • lifestyle polygraph - A lifestyle polygraph is a lie-detector (polygraph) test that is administered as a requirement for employment in certain fields.
  • likejacking - Likejacking is a variation on clickjacking in which malicious coding is associated with a Facebook Like button.
  • link encryption (link level or link layer encryption) - Link encryption (sometimes called link level or link layer encryption) is the data security process of encrypting information at the data link level as it is transmitted between two points within a network.
  • live capture - Live capture is the act or method of gathering biometric data from an individual while the individual is physically present.
  • logic bomb - A logic bomb, sometimes referred to as slag code, is a string of malicious code used to cause harm to a network when the programmed conditions are met.
  • macrotrend - A macro trend is a persistent shift in the direction of some phenomenon on a global level.
  • madware - Madware is a type of aggressive advertising that affects smartphones and tablets.
  • malvertisement (malicious advertisement or malvertising) - A malvertisement (malicious advertisement) is an advertisement on the Internet that is capable of infecting the viewer's computer with malware.
  • malware (malicious software) - Malware, or malicious software, is any program or file that is harmful to a computer user.
  • Malware Analysis Report (MAR) - Malware Analysis Report (MAR) is a document that relates the functionality and effects of a given piece of malware.
  • man-in-the-middle attack (MitM) - A man-in-the-middle attack is one in which the attacker secretly intercepts and relays messages between two parties who think they are communicating directly with each other.
  • managed file transfer (MFT) - Managed file transfer (MFT) is a type of software used to provide secure internal, external and ad-hoc data transfers through a network.
  • Managed security service provider (MSSP) - A managed security service provider (MSSP) is an IT service provider that provides an organization with some amount of cybersecurity monitoring and management, which may include virus and spam blocking, intrusion detection, firewalls and virtual private network (VPN) management.
  • masquerade - In general, a masquerade is a disguise.
  • MD2 - MD2 is an earlier, 8-bit version of MD5, an algorithm used to verify data integrity through the creation of a 128-bit message digest from data input (which may be a message of any length) that is claimed to be as unique to that specific data as a fingerprint is to the specific individual.
  • MD4 - MD4 is an earlier version of MD5, an algorithm used to verify data integrity through the creation of a 128-bit message digest from data input (which may be a message of any length) that is claimed to be as unique to that specific data as a fingerprint is to the specific individual.
  • MD5 - The MD5 hashing algorithm is a one-way cryptographic function that accepts a message of any length as input and returns as output a fixed-length digest value to be used for authenticating the original message.
  • medical identity theft - Medical identity theft is the illegal access and use of someone’s personally identifiable information to fraudulently obtain medical service, prescription drugs or medical insurance coverage.
  • meet-in-the-middle attack - Meet-in-the-middle is a type of attack that can exponentially reduce the number of brute force permutations required to decrypt text that has been encrypted by more than one key.
  • Melissa virus - Melissa is a fast-spreading macro virus that is distributed as an e-mail attachment that, when opened, disables a number of safeguards in Word 97 or Word 2000, and, if the user has the Microsoft Outlook e-mail program, causes the virus to be resent to the first 50 people in each of the user's address books.
  • Meltdown and Spectre flaws - Meltdown and Spectre flaws are variations on vulnerabilities to most computer chips manufactured in the past 20 years that can gain access to data and information stored on the device.
  • memory dump attack - A memory dump attack is the capture and use of RAM content that was written to a storage drive during an unrecoverable error, which was typically triggered by the attacker.
  • memory-scraping malware - Memory-scraping malware is a type of malware that helps hackers to find personal data.
  • messaging security - Messaging security is a subcategory of unified threat management (UTM) focused on securing and protecting an organization’s communication infrastructure.
  • metamorphic and polymorphic malware - Metamorphic and polymorphic malware are two categories of malicious programs that have the ability to change their code as they propagate.
  • Metamorphic virus - A metamorphic virus is a type of malware that is capable of changing its code and signature patterns with each iteration.
  • MICR (magnetic ink character recognition) - MICR (magnetic ink character recognition) is a technology used to verify the legitimacy or originality of paper documents, especially checks.
  • micro VM (micro virtual machine) - A micro VM (micro virtual machine) is a virtual machine program that serves to isolate an untrusted computing operation from a computer's host operating system.
  • micro-botnet (mini-botnet or baby botnet) - A micro-botnet, also called a mini-botnet or baby botnet, is a small network of Internet-connected computers that have been hijacked to attack specific companies or individuals within a company.
  • microphone hacking - Microphone hacking is the unauthorized interception of audio data captured through the microphone on a computer, smartphone or other device.
  • Microsoft Antigen - Microsoft Antigen is a set of programs that provides security and e-mail filtering for network servers.
  • Microsoft Management Console (MMC) - The Microsoft Management Console (MMC) is an application that provides a graphical-user interface (GUI) and a programming framework in which consoles (collections of administrative tools) can be created, saved, and opened.
  • Microsoft Online Services Sign-In Assistant - The Microsoft Online Services Sign-In Assistant is a software application that provides common sign-on capabilities for a suite of Microsoft online services, such as Office 365.
  • Microsoft Security Essentials (MSE) - Microsoft Security Essentials (MSE) is an antimalware software product made by Microsoft that provides protection for client computers against viruses, worms, Trojans, spyware and other malicious software on Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7 systems.
  • minutiae - In the biometric process of fingerscanning, minutiae are specific points in a finger image.
  • Misfortune Cookie - Misfortune Cookie is a firmware vulnerability in some routers that makes it possible for an attacker to gain administrative privileges and attack the devices and, through them, the network.
  • mobile app reputation - Mobile app reputation is an assessment of the security and privacy of an app, typically expressed as a numerical rating.
  • mobile device attack - A mobile device attack is an exploit targeting handheld communications devices, such as smartphones and tablets.
  • mobile malware - Mobile malware is malicious software specifically written to attack mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets, and smartwatches.
  • mobile number privacy - Mobile number privacy is the protection of the phone user’s number from unwanted access.
  • MPPE (Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption) - MPPE (Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption) is a method of encrypting data transferred across Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)-based dial-up connections or Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) virtual private network (VPN) connections.
  • multifactor authentication (MFA) - Multifactor authentication (MFA) is a security system that requires more than one method of authentication from independent categories of credentials to verify the user’s identity for a login or other transaction.
  • mutual authentication - Mutual authentication, also called two-way authentication, is a process or technology in which both entities in a communications link authenticate each other.
  • NAND mirroring - NAND mirroring has been proposed to break the security in certain portable devices that use NAND flash memory for encryption.
  • National Computer Security Center (NCSC) - The National Computer Security Center (NCSC) is a U.
  • national identity card - A national identity card is a portable document, typically a plasticized card with digitally-embedded information, that someone is required or encouraged to carry as a means of confirming their identity.
  • National Vulnerability Database (NVD) - NVD (National Vulnerability Database) is a product of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Computer Security Division and is used by the U.
  • NBAR (Network Based Application Recognition) - Network Based Application Recognition (NBAR) is a mechanism that classifies and regulates bandwidth for network applications to ensure that available resources are utilized as efficiently as possible.
  • Near Field Communication (NFC) - Near Field Communication (NFC) is a short-range wireless connectivity standard (Ecma-340, ISO/IEC 18092) that uses magnetic field induction to enable communication between devices when they're touched together, or brought within a few centimeters of each other.
  • Nessus - Nessus is an open-source network vulnerability scanner that uses the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures architecture for easy cross-linking between compliant security tools.
  • network behavior analysis (NBA) - Network behavior analysis (NBA) is a method of enhancing the security of a proprietary network by monitoring traffic and noting unusual actions or departures from normal operation.
  • network behavior anomaly detection (NBAD) - Network behavior anomaly detection (NBAD) is the continuous monitoring of a proprietary network for unusual events or extraordinary trends.
  • network encryption (network layer or network level encryption) - Network encryption (sometimes called network layer, or network level encryption) is a network security process that applies crypto services at the network transfer layer - above the data link level, but below the application level.
  • network forensics - Network forensics is the capture, recording, and analysis of network events in order to discover the source of security attacks or other problem incidents.
  • network perimeter - A network perimeter is the boundary between the private and locally managed-and-owned side of a network and the public and usually provider-managed side of a network.
  • network scanning - Network scanning is a procedure for identifying active devices on a network by employing a feature or features in the network protocol to signal devices and await a response.
  • network vulnerability scanning - A vulnerability scan detects and classifies system weaknesses in computers, networks and communications equipment and predicts the effectiveness of countermeasures.
  • Next Generation Secure Computing Base (NGSCB) - The Next Generation Secure Computing Base (NGSCB) is a part of the Microsoft Vista operating system (OS) that employs a trusted platform module (TPM), a specialized chip that can be installed on the motherboard of a personal computer (PC) or server for the purpose of hardware authentication.
  • Nimda - First appearing on September 18, 2001, Nimda is a computer virus that caused traffic slowdowns as it rippled across the Internet, spreading through four different methods, infecting computers containing Microsoft's Web server, Internet Information Server (IIS), and computer users who opened an e-mail attachment.
  • NIST 800 Series - The NIST 800 Series is a set of documents that describe United States federal government computer security policies, procedures and guidelines.
  • nonrepudiation - Nonrepudiation is the assurance that someone cannot deny something, such as the receipt of a message or the authenticity of a statement or contract.
  • OCSP (Online Certificate Status Protocol) - OCSP (Online Certificate Status Protocol) is one of two common schemes for maintaining the security of a server and other network resources.
  • OCTAVE - OCTAVE (Operationally Critical Threat, Asset, and Vulnerability Evaluation) is a security framework for determining risk level and planning defenses against cyber assaults.
  • offensive security - Offensive security is a proactive and antagonistic approach to protecting computer systems, networks and individuals from attacks.
  • Office of Personnel Management (OPM) - The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is an independent agency of the United States government that is tasked with the oversight of civil service hirings.

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