Browse Definitions :

Threat management

Terms related to security threats, including definitions about anti-virus programs or firewalls and words and phrases about malware, viruses, Trojans and other security attacks.

OPE - ROO

  • open redirect - Open redirect is a security flaw in an app or a web page that causes it to fail to properly authenticate URLs.
  • Open System Authentication (OSA) - Open System Authentication (OSA) is a process by which a computer can gain access to a wireless network that uses the Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) protocol.
  • OpenPGP - OpenPGP is an open and free version of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) standard that defines encryption formats to enable private messaging abilities for email and other message encryption.
  • Operation Phish Phry - Operation Phish Phry is a cybercrime investigation carried out by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Los Angeles Electronic Crimes Task Force and Egyptian authorities.
  • orphan account - An orphan account, also referred to as an orphaned account, is a user account that can provide access to corporate systems, services and applications but does not have a valid owner.
  • out-of-band patch - An out-of-band patch is a patch released at some time other than the normal release time.
  • output feedback (OFB) - In cryptography, output feedback (OFB) is a mode of operation for a block cipher.
  • ownership tag - An ownership tag is a security feature on Compaq computers, consisting of an encrypt ed text string that displays at startup to uniquely identify a computer.
  • P versus NP (polynomial versus nondeterministic polynomial) - P versus NP (polynomial versus nondeterministic polynomial) refers to a theoretical question presented in 1971 by Leonid Levin and Stephen Cook, concerning mathematical problems that are easy to solve (P type) as opposed to problems that are difficult to solve (NP type).
  • packet monkey - On the Internet, a packet monkey is someone (see cracker, hacker, and script kiddy) who intentionally inundates a Web site or network with data packets, resulting in a denial-of-service situation for users of the attacked site or network.
  • Palladium - Palladium is a plan from Intel, AMD, and Microsoft to build security into personal computers and servers at the microprocessor level.
  • parameter tampering - Parameter tampering is a form of Web-based hacking event (called an attack) in which certain parameters in the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or Web page form field data entered by a user are changed without that user's authorization.
  • passive attack - A passive attack is a network attack in which a system is monitored and sometimes scanned for open ports and vulnerabilities.
  • passive FTP - Passive FTP (sometimes referred to as PASV FTP because it involves the FTP PASV command) is a more secure form of data transfer in which the flow of data is set up and initiated by the File Transfer Program (FTP) client rather than by the FTP server program.
  • passive reconnaissance - Passive reconnaissance is an attempt to gain information about targeted computers and networks without actively engaging with the systems.
  • passphrase - A passphrase is a string of characters longer than the usual password (which is typically from four to 16 characters long) that is used in creating a digital signature (an encoded signature that proves to someone that it was really you who sent a message) or in an encryption or a decryption of a message.
  • password - A password is an unspaced sequence of characters used to determine that a computer user requesting access to a computer system is really that particular user.
  • password cracker - A password cracker is an application program that is used to identify an unknown or forgotten password to a computer or network resources.
  • password synchronization - Password synchronization is an authentication process that coordinates user passwords across various computers and computing devices so a user only has to remember a single password instead of multiple passwords for different machines or devices.
  • pastebin - A pastebin is a Web application that allows users to upload and share text online.
  • PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard) - The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) is a widely accepted set of policies and procedures intended to optimize the security of credit, debit and cash card transactions and protect cardholders against misuse of their personal information.
  • PCI forensic investigator program - A PCI forensic investigator program is a certification process for companies wishing to become eligible to perform investigations into data breaches on payment card industry (PCI) networks.
  • PEAP (Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol) - PEAP (Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a version of EAP, the authentication protocol used in wireless networks and Point-to-Point connections.
  • peer-to-peer botnet (P2P botnet) - A peer-to-peer botnet is a decentralized group of malware-compromised machines working together for an attacker’s purpose without their owners’ knowledge.
  • pen test (penetration testing) - Penetration testing, also called pen testing or ethical hacking, is the practice of testing a computer system, network or web application to find security vulnerabilities that an attacker could exploit.
  • performance crime - A performance crime is an illegal act that is committed with the intention of being witnessed by an audience or seeking an audience afterwards.
  • personal firewall (desktop firewall) - A personal firewall (sometimes called a desktop firewall) is a software application used to protect a single Internet-connected computer from intruders.
  • pharming - Pharming is a scamming practice in which malicious code is installed on a personal computer or server, misdirecting users to fraudulent Web sites without their knowledge or consent.
  • phlashing - Phlashing is a permanent denial of service (PDoS) attack that exploits a vulnerability in network-based firmware updates.
  • phreak - A phreak is someone who breaks into the telephone network illegally, typically to make free long-distance phone calls or to tap phone lines.
  • PIN lock - The PIN lock is an authentication measure for mobile phones that requires the entry of a personal identification number (PIN) code before a device can be used.
  • ping of death - On the Internet, ping of death is a denial of service (DoS) attack caused by an attacker deliberately sending an IP packet larger than the 65,536 bytes allowed by the IP protocol.
  • ping sweep (ICMP sweep) - A ping sweep (also known as an ICMP sweep) is a basic network scanning technique used to determine which of a range of IP addresses map to live hosts (computers).
  • piracy - Software piracy is the illegal copying, distribution, or use of software.
  • PKI (public key infrastructure) - A public key infrastructure (PKI) supports the distribution and identification of public encryption keys, enabling users and computers to both securely exchange data over networks such as the Internet and verify the identity of the other party.
  • plaintext - In cryptography, plaintext is ordinary readable text before being encrypted into ciphertext or after being decrypted.
  • Plundervolt - Plundervolt is a method of hacking that involves depriving an Intel chip of power so that processing errors occur.
  • point-of-sale security (POS security) - Point-of-sale security (POS security) is the study of vulnerabilities in retail checkout points and prevention of access by unauthorized parties looking to steal customer and payment card details from them.
  • Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) - Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a protocol (set of communication rules) that allows corporations to extend their own corporate network through private "tunnels" over the public Internet.
  • policy server - A policy server is a security component of a policy-based network that provides authorization services and facilitates tracking and control of files.
  • policy-based management - Policy-based management is an administrative approach that is used to simplify the management of a given endeavor by establishing policies to deal with situations that are likely to occur.
  • POODLE (Padding Oracle On Downgraded Legacy Encryption) - POODLE (Padding Oracle On Downgraded Legacy Encryption) is a security flaw that can be exploited to conduct a man-in-the-middle attack that targets Web browser-based communication between clients and servers using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) 3.
  • POODLE attack - A POODLE attack is an exploit that takes advantage of the way some browsers deal with encryption.
  • port knocking - Port knocking is an authentication method used by network administrators to control access to computers or other network devices behind a firewall.
  • port mirroring (roving analysis port) - Port mirroring is an approach to monitoring network traffic that involves forwarding a copy of each packet from one network switch port to another.
  • Port Scan - A port scan is a series of messages sent by someone attempting to break into a computer to learn which computer network services -- each associated with a "well-known" port number -- the computer provides.
  • pre-installed malware - Pre-installed malware is malicious software that is put on a machine before it is delivered to the user.
  • presence technology - Presence technology is a type of application that makes it possible to locate and identify a computing device wherever it might be, as soon as the user connects to the network.
  • Presidential Policy Directive 21 (PPD-21) - Presidential Policy Directive 21 (PPD-21) is an infrastructure protection and resilience directive in the United States that aims to strengthen and secure the country's critical infrastructure.
  • pretexting - Pretexting is a form of social engineering in which one individual lies to obtain privileged data about another individual in order to engage in identity theft or corporate espionage.
  • Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) - Pretty Good Privacy or PGP is a popular program used to encrypt and decrypt email over the Internet, as well as authenticate messages with digital signatures and encrypted stored files.
  • principle of least privilege (POLP) - The principle of least privilege (POLP), an important concept in computer security, is the practice of limiting access rights for users to the bare minimum permissions they need to perform their work.
  • Prisma - Prisma is a cloud security suite that provides four different services that use rule-based security policies and machine learning to protect cloud services.
  • privacy - On the Internet, privacy, a major concern of users, can be divided into these concerns: What personal information can be shared with whom Whether messages can be exchanged without anyone else seeing them Whether and how one can send messages anonymously Personal Information Privacy Most Web users want to understand that personal information they share will not be shared with anyone else without their permission.
  • private cloud (internal cloud or corporate cloud) - Private cloud is a type of cloud computing that delivers similar advantages to public cloud, including scalability and self-service, but through a proprietary architecture.
  • private key - A private key, also known as a secret key, is a variable in cryptography that is used with an algorithm to encrypt and decrypt code.
  • privilege - In the administration of a multi-user computer system, a privilege is an identified right that a particular user has to a particular system resource, such as a file folder, the use of certain system commands, or an amount of storage.
  • privilege bracketing - Privilege bracketing is the practice of limiting temporarily increased permission levels to the briefest possible time period.
  • privilege escalation attack - A privilege escalation attack is a type of network intrusion that takes advantage of programming errors or design flaws to grant the attacker elevated access to the network and its associated data and applications.
  • Prometheus - Prometheus is an open source monitoring and alerting toolkit for microservices and containers that provides flexible queries and real time notifications.
  • promiscuous mode - In a network, promiscuous mode allows a network device to intercept and read each network packet that arrives in its entirety.
  • proxy hacking - Proxy hacking, also known as proxy hijacking, is an attack technique designed to supplant an authentic Web page in a search engine's index and search results pages.
  • pseudonymous profile - A pseudonymous profile is a collection of information about a particular computer user that identifies the user either by their computer's IP address or by a randomly-generated nickname.
  • public key - In cryptography, a public key is a value provided by some designated authority as an encryption key that, combined with a private key derived from the public key, can be used to effectively encrypt messages and digital signatures.
  • public key certificate - A public key certificate is a digitally signed document that serves to validate the sender's authorization and name.
  • Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) - The Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) are a set of intervendor standard protocols for making possible secure information exchange on the Internet using a public key infrastructure (PKI).
  • pulsing zombie - A pulsing zombie is a computer whose security has been compromised without its owner's knowledge by a cracker so that it intermittently carries out a denial-of-service attack on target computers in a network.
  • PUP (potentially unwanted program) - A PUP (potentially unwanted program) is a program that may be unwanted, despite the possibility that users consented to download it.
  • Pwn2Own - Pwn2Own is an annual hacking competition sponsored by security vendor TippingPoint and held at the CanSecWest security conference.
  • RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) - Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) is a client/server protocol and software that enables remote access servers to communicate with a central server to authenticate dial-in users and authorize their access to the requested system or service.
  • rainbow table - A rainbow table is a listing of all possible plaintext permutations of encrypted passwords specific to a given hash algorithm.
  • ransomware - Ransomware is a subset of malware in which the data on a victim's computer is locked -- typically by encryption -- and payment is demanded before the ransomed data is decrypted and access is returned to the victim.
  • RAT (remote access Trojan) - A remote access Trojan (RAT) is a malware program that gives an intruder administrative control over a target computer.
  • red team-blue team - Red team-blue team is a simulation and training exercise where members of an organization are divided into teams to compete in combative exercises.
  • red teaming - Red teaming is the practice of rigorously challenging an organization's plans, policies, systems and assumptions by applying an adversarial approach.
  • redact - To redact is to edit, or prepare for publishing.
  • Regin malware - Regin is a complex strain of back-door Trojan malware that uses a multi-staged, modular approach to infect its targets for the purpose of monitoring user activity and stealing data.
  • Register of Known Spam Operations (ROKSO) - The Register of Known Spam Operations (ROKSO) is a list of over 500 professional spammers that is maintained by the Spamhaus Project, an organization dedicated to identifying and exposing spam operators.
  • relative identifier (RID) - In Windows 2000, the relative identifier (RID) is the part of a security ID (SID) that uniquely identifies an account or group within a domain.
  • Resource Access Control Facility (RACF) - RACF (Resource Access Control Facility) is the IBM security management product for its mainframe (large server) operating system, OS/390 (MVS) as well as for its VM operating system.
  • reverse DNS (rDNS) - Reverse DNS (rDNS) is a method of resolving an IP address into a domain name, just as the domain name system (DNS) resolves domain names into associated IP addresses.
  • RFID skimming - RFID skimming is the wireless interception of information from RFID chip-based debit, credit and ID cards and other documents, such as passports.
  • RFID virus - An RFID (radio-frequency identification) virus is malicious code inserted into an RFID tag to alter or corrupt data in an RFID system.
  • ridge - In the biometric process of fingerscanning, a ridge is a curved line in a finger image.
  • Rijndael - Rijndael (pronounced rain-dahl) is the algorithm that has been selected by the U.
  • risk analysis - Risk analysis is the process of identifying and analyzing potential issues that could negatively impact key business initiatives or projects.
  • risk-based authentication (RBA) - Risk-based authentication (RBA) is a method of applying varying levels of stringency to authentication processes based on the likelihood that access to a given system could result in its being compromised.
  • risk-based security strategy - A risk-based security strategy is one in which an organization identifies specific security precautions that should be taken in an information technology (IT) environment and documents when and where those precautions should be applied.
  • Rock Phish - Rock Phish is both a phishing toolkit and the entity that publishes the kit, either a hacker, or, more likely, a sophisticated group of hackers.
  • rogue employee - A rogue employee is a worker who undermines the organization that employs him by failing to comply with its business rules and policies.
  • rolling code - Rolling code, also known as hopping code, is an encryption technique commonly used to provide a fresh code for each use of a passive keyless entry (PKE) system.
  • romance scam - A romance scam is a fraudulent scheme in which a swindler pretends romantic interest in a target, establishes a relationship and then attempts to get money or sensitive information from the target under various false pretenses.
  • rootkit - A rootkit is a program or, more often, a collection of software tools that gives a threat actor remote access to and control over a computer or other system.
  • Roots of Trust (RoT) - Roots of Trust (RoT) is a set of functions in the trusted computing module that are always trusted by the computer’s operating system (OS).

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