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Software development

Definitions related to software development, including tech terms about programming and words and phrases about Scrum, Agile and waterfall methodologies.

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  • cone of uncertainty - The cone of uncertainty is a project management tool that illustrates the fact that the accuracy of estimates increases over the span of the project.
  • conformance testing - Conformance testing, also known as compliance testing, is a methodology used in engineering to ensure that a product, process, computer program or system meets a defined set of standards.
  • const - The const (constant) keyword indicates that the associated variable cannot be changed.
  • consumer panel - A consumer panel is a group of individuals selected by a business or organization to provide input and opinion on products and services for research on consumer behavior.
  • container (disambiguation) - This page explains how the term container is used in software development, storage, data center management and mobile device management.
  • container image - A container image is an unchangeable, static file that includes executable code so it can run an isolated process on information technology (IT) infrastructure.
  • container registry - A container registry is a collection of repositories made to store container images.
  • context-driven testing - Context-driven testing is a paradigm for developing and debugging computer software that takes into account the ways in which the programs will be used or are expected to be used in the real world.
  • continuous delivery (CD) - Continuous delivery (CD) is a software release approach in which development teams produce and test code in short cycles, usually with a high degree of automation.
  • continuous deployment - Continuous deployment is a strategy for software releases wherein any code commit that passes the automated testing phase is automatically released into the production environment, making changes that are visible to the software's users.
  • continuous integration (CI) - Continuous integration (CI) is a software engineering practice in which frequent, isolated changes are immediately tested and reported on when they are added to a larger code base.
  • continuous quality - Continuous quality is a systematic approach to finding and fixing software defects during all phases of the software development cycle.
  • continuous software development - Continuous software development is a blanket term that covers several aspects of an iterative application development process based on making each change when it is ready, rather than wrapping many changes into large batches.
  • conversational user interface - A conversational user interface is the ability of artificial intelligence-supported chatbots to have verbal and written interactions with human users.
  • Conway's law - Conway’s law is an observation that the design of any system is significantly affected by the communications structure of the organization that develops it.
  • Cosmos - Cosmos is an open source, evolving, .
  • cowboy coding - Cowboy coding describes an undisciplined approach to software development.
  • cross-browser testing - Cross-browser testing, also called browser testing, is a quality assurance (QA) process that checks whether a web-based application, site or page functions as intended for end users across multiple browsers and devices.
  • cross-platform mobile development - Cross-platform mobile development is the creation of software applications that are compatible with multiple mobile operating systems.
  • crowdsource testing - Crowdsource testing is the practice of sending out prototype software and products to broad groups of people for testing rather than having testing performed internally.
  • customer - In agile software development, a customer is a person with an understanding of both the business needs and operational constraints for a project.
  • D - D is one of two programming languages, Digital Mars D, an object-oriented metaprogramming language, or Microsoft D, a key component of the upcoming Oslo development environment.
  • dark infrastructure - Dark infrastructure is undocumented but active software or services whose existence and function is unknown to system administrators -- despite the fact that it may be integral to the continued operation of documented infrastructure.
  • dark pattern - Dark patterns are manipulative or deceptive design elements used in some web pages, popups and programs that include malware, freeware, shareware, freemium offerings and even fully paid software.
  • Data Security Council of India (DSCI) - The Data Security Council of India (DSCI) is a not-for-profit organization created to promote the country as a secure destination for information technology (IT) outsourcing.
  • Daylight Saving Time patch - A Daylight Saving Time patch is a modular piece of code created to update systems, devices and programs for compatibility with new start and end dates for Daylight Saving Time (DST) in the United States, Canada and Bermuda.
  • declarative programming - Declarative programming is a method to abstract away the control flow for logic required for software to perform an action, and instead involves stating what the task or desired outcome is.
  • definition of done - A definition of done is a checklist of criteria that a product, product increment or project must satisfy to be considered completed.
  • dependency checking - Dependency checking is a function that is performed to ensure that all pre-requisites for a given run-time image are present.
  • dependency injection - Dependency injection (DI) is an object-oriented programming (OOP) software design structure in which service references, also called dependencies, are delivered to clients from the outside as required.
  • deprecated - In dictionaries, deprecated is a term used to indicate a pronunciation or usage that is acknowledged but discouraged.
  • design thinking - Design thinking is an iterative approach to problem solving that intentionally seeks out people with different perspectives, knowledge, skills and experience and has them work together to create a practical solution for a real-world problem.
  • destructive testing - Destructive testing is a software assessment method used to find points of failure in a program.
  • DevOps engineer - DevOps engineer is a professional role for information technology (IT) employees who work with development, testing and other aspects of IT to bring new software releases through development, and deploy, test and run the code on production IT infrastructure.
  • digital commons - The digital commons is the collective of discreet online resources that are collaboratively developed and overseen by a community.
  • Direct3D - Direct3D is the Microsoft 3D application programming interface (API) component of the DirectX API package.
  • discoverability - Discoverability is the capacity of something to be found.
  • discoverability (in UX design) - Discoverability, in the context of product and interface design, is the degree of ease with which the user can find all the elements and features of a new system when they first encounter it.
  • distributed search - Distributed search is a search engine model in which the tasks of Web crawling, indexing and query processing are distributed among multiple computers and networks.
  • DNN Platform (DotNetNuke) - DNN Platform, formerly called DotNetNuke Community Edition, is a free, open source content management system (CMS).
  • Docker Engine - Docker Engine is the underlying client-server technology that builds and runs containers using Docker's components and services.
  • domain-driven design (DDD) - Domain-driven design (DDD) is a software development philosophy centered around the domain, or sphere of knowledge, of those that use it.
  • Drizzle - Drizzle is a lightweight open source database management system in development based on MySQL 6.
  • Drupal - Drupal is free, open source software that can be used by individuals or groups of users -- even those lacking technical skills -- to easily create and manage many types of Web sites.
  • dynamic analysis - Dynamic analysis is the testing and evaluation of a program based on execution with selected data.
  • dynamic testing - Dynamic testing is a method of assessing the feasibility of a software program by giving input and examining output (I/O).
  • embedded firmware - Hardware makers use embedded firmware to control the functions of various hardware devices and systems much like a computer’s operating system controls the function of software applications.
  • embedded software - Hardware makers use embedded software to control the functions of various hardware devices and systems.
  • empiricism - Empiricism is the theory that human knowledge comes predominantly from experiences gathered through the five senses.
  • encapsulation in Java - Java offers four different "scope" realms--public, protected, private, and package--that can be used to selectively hide data constructs.
  • end-to-end testing - End-to-end testing is a methodology that assesses the working order of a complex product in a start-to-finish process.
  • endpoint reference (EPR) - An endpoint reference (EPR) is a combination of Web services (WS) elements that define the address for a resource in a Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) header.
  • Enlightenment (E) - Enlightenment, also called E, is a popular free and open source (FOSS) windows manager that can serve as a standalone desktop environment.
  • Enterprise Integration Patterns (EIP) - "Enterprise Integration Patterns: Designing, Building, and Deploying Messaging Solutions" is a book of design patterns for enterprise application integration.
  • Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) - An enterprise service bus (ESB) is a middleware tool used to distribute work among connected components of an application.
  • error handling - Error handling refers to the anticipation, detection, and resolution of programming, application, and communications errors.
  • Eucalyptus - Eucalyptus is an open source software platform for implementing Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) in a private or hybrid cloud computing environment.
  • event - An event, in a computing context, is an action or occurrence that can be identified by a program and has significance for system hardware or software.
  • event handling - Event handling is the receipt of an event at some event handler from an event producer and subsequent processes.
  • event sourcing - Event sourcing is a coding practice used by computer programmers to model a system as a sequence of events in order to identify the changes made over time.
  • event stream processing (ESP) - Event stream processing (ESP) is a software capacity designed to support implementation of event-driven architectures.
  • event-condition-action rule (ECA rule) - An event condition action rule (ECA rule) is the underlying model for event-driven programming, in which actions are triggered by events, given the existence of specific conditions.
  • event-driven architecture (EDA) - An event-driven architecture (EDA) is a framework that orchestrates behavior around the production, detection and consumption of events as well as the responses they evoke.
  • event-driven computing - Event-driven computing is a computing model in which programs perform work in response to identifiable occurrences that have significance for system hardware or software.
  • evolutionary robotics - Evolutionary robotics is a computer-simulated method of creating intelligent, autonomous robots with particular traits, based on the principles of Darwin's theory of evolution.
  • exception - An exception, in programming, is an unplanned event, such as invalid input or a loss of connectivity, that occurs while a program is executing and disrupts the flow of its instructions.
  • exploratory testing - Exploratory testing is an approach to software assessment that integrates learning about the program with designing the test and conducting the testing processes.
  • Expression Web Designer - Expression Web Designer is Microsoft's new tool for building and enhancing Web sites with design elements such as cascading style sheets, personalized task panes and compatibility with non-Microsoft Web browsers like Firefox.
  • F8 (Facebook F8) - F8 (pronounced F-eight) is Facebook's developer conference for those creating applications on the social media site's platform.
  • facepalm - Facepalm is a gesture in which an individual places the palm of one or both hands on their face to express one of a number of emotions, including shock, disbelief, distress, embarrassment, horror and frustration.
  • facial occlusion position - A facial occlusion position is one of a number of possible poses in which something, such as a person's hand, blocks (occludes) part of their face.
  • fail fast - Fail fast is a philosophy that values the development or implementation of many small experimental products, changes or approaches before committing large amounts of time or resources.
  • fault injection testing - Fault injection is a testing process which deliberately introduces errors to a system to ensure the system can withstand the error and recover.
  • feature flagging - Feature flagging is a cost-effective and simple programming method that involves a programming design pattern which allows developers to turn a feature of a software application on or off without having to release or change the code in production.
  • Fennec - Fennec is a version of the Firefox browser adapted for mobile phones and other small computing devices.
  • flat design - Flat design is a simple, graphic style common in user interface (UI), software and Web design.
  • Force.com - Force.com is a Platform as a Service (PaaS) product designed to simplify the development and deployment of cloud-based applications and websites.
  • formal methods - Formal methods are the use of a specific mathematical technique for the specification, development and verification of systems in both software and electronic hardware.
  • Fortress - Fortress is a programming language developed for high-performance computing (HPC) that can also serve as a general-purpose programming language.
  • fourth wall - The fourth wall is a conceptual barrier between those presenting some kind of a communication and those receiving it.
  • Free and open source software (FOSS) or free/libre open source software (FLOSS) - Free and open source software (FOSS), also known as free/libre open source software (FLOSS) and free/open source software (F/OSS), is software developed by informal collaborative networks of programmers and end users.
  • fudge factor - A fudge factor is an element inserted into a calculation, formula or model to allow for error or uncertainty.
  • full-stack developer - A full-stack developer is a type of programmer that has a functional knowledge of all techniques, languages and systems engineering concepts required in software development.
  • functional testing - Functional testing is a process used to evaluate software during development to ensure that it meets the application’s intended requirements.
  • fuzz testing (fuzzing) - Fuzz testing (fuzzing) is a technique used by ethical hackers to discover security loopholes in software, operating systems or networks by massive inputting of random data to the system in an attempt to make it crash.
  • garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) - GIGO (garbage in, garbage out) is a concise expression of a concept common to computer science and mathematics: the quality of output is determined by the quality of the input.
  • General Architecture for Text Engineering (GATE) - General Architecture for Text Engineering (GATE) is a development environment for writing software that can process human-language text.
  • Git - Git is a free and open source distributed code management and version control system that is distributed under the GNU General Public License version 2.
  • GitHub - GitHub is a web-based revision control hosting service for software development and code sharing.
  • GLib - GLib is a utility library that can simplify programming in C, especially for projects involving the languages GNOME and GTK+.
  • GNU project - The GNU project is a mass collaborative initiative for the development of free software.
  • go-live (go live) - In software development, go-live is the time at which code moves from the test environment to the production environment.
  • gold plating - Gold plating is the practice of making changes to a project that are outside of the original agreed-upon scope.
  • Google App Engine - Google App Engine is a cloud computing platform as a service that allows web app developers and enterprises access to Google's scalable hosting and tier 1 internet service.
  • Google Chromium - Google Chromium is an open source project that was initiated to make source code for the Chrome OS and the Chrome browser available to developers.
  • Google Compute Engine - Google Compute Engine is an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) offering that allows clients to run workloads on Google's physical hardware.
  • Google Preemptible VM - A Preemptible VM (PVM) is a Google Compute Engine (GCE) virtual machine (VM) instance that can be purchased for a steep discount as long as the customer accepts that the instance will terminate after 24 hours.
  • GraphQL - GraphQL is a query language that describes how a client should request information through an application programming interface (API).
  • gray box testing (gray box) - Gray box testing, also called gray box analysis, is a strategy for software debugging based on limited knowledge of the internal details of the program.
  • Groovy - Groovy is a dynamic object-oriented programming language for the Java virtual machine (JVM) that can be used anywhere Java is used.

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