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Solid state (flash) storage

This glossary contains definitions related to solid state storage. Some definitions explain the meaning of words used to describe flash storage in consumer technology. Other definitions are related to the capabilities of solid-state applications and the role of all-flash arrays in enterprise storage. Visit <a href="https://searchsolidstatestorage.techtarget.com/">SearchSolidStateStorage.com</a> to learn about the tools and strategies that will help you build a solid state storage architecture and manage solid state drives (SSDs).

3.5 - WRI

  • 3.5" SSD (3.5 solid-state drive) - A 3.5 solid-state drive (SSD) is a data storage device designed for the 3.
  • 3D NAND flash - 3D NAND is a type of flash memory in which memory cells are stacked vertically in layers, in comparison to planar NAND, which uses a single layer of memory cells.
  • 3D XPoint - 3D XPoint is memory storage technology jointly developed by Intel and Micron Technology Inc.
  • all-flash array (AFA) - An all-flash array (AFA), also known as a solid-state storage disk system, is an external storage array that uses only flash media for persistent storage.
  • array-based SSD - An array-based SSD is a solid state drive manufactured in a form factor that can be installed in a typical storage array.
  • client solid state drive (SSD) - Client solid state drive (SSD) is a marketing term used by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and value-added resellers (VARs) to differentiate between solid state drives built for consumers and solid state drives built for the enterprise.
  • conductive metal-oxide (CMOx) technology - Conductive metal-oxide (CMOx) technology is a nonvolatile storage technology that works by moving oxygen ions between conductive and insulating metal-oxide layers within a single chip.
  • eMMC (embedded MultiMediaCard) - An embedded MultiMediaCard (eMMC) is a small storage device made up of NAND flash memory and a simple storage controller.
  • enterprise MLC (eMLC) - Enterprise MLC (eMLC) is a type of MLC flash that has been enhanced to accommodate more write cycles than consumer-grade MLC flash offers.
  • enterprise SSD (enterprise solid-state drive) - An enterprise SSD (also known as an enterprise solid-state drive or enterprise solid-state disk) stores data persistently or caches data temporarily in nonvolatile memory and generally provides higher performance and greater endurance than consumer or client SSDs.
  • flash cache appliance - A NAND flash cache appliance is a dedicated network appliance that resides between the hosts and underlying storage arrays.
  • flash controller (flash memory controller) - A flash controller is the part of solid-state flash memory that communicates with the host device and manages the flash file system directory.
  • flash file system - Flash file systems are designed specifically for memory devices.
  • flash-based solid state drive (SSD) - A flash solid state drive (SSD)  is a non-volatile storage device that stores persistent data in flash memory.
  • floating gate transistor (FGT) - A floating gate transistor (FGT) is a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology capable of holding an electrical charge in a memory device that is used to store data.
  • fresh out of the box (FOB) - Fresh out of the box (FOB) is a term used in solid state storage (SSS) to describe a flash memory device that has experienced few or no program/erase (P/E) cycles since the device was manufactured.
  • HDD form factor (hard disk drive form factor) - HDD form factor is the size or geometry of a hard disk drive, determining the device’s compatibility with the drive bays in a storage array or enclosure, server, portable computer or other computing device.
  • hybrid flash array - A hybrid flash array is a solid-state storage system that contains a mix of flash memory drives and hard disk drives.
  • IBM racetrack memory - Racetrack memory is a type of non-volatile, solid-state nanotech memory being developed by IBM.
  • IOPS (input/output operations per second) - IOPS measures the maximum number of reads and writes to non-contiguous storage.
  • JEDEC - JEDEC is a global industry group that develops open standards for microelectronics.
  • M.2 SSD - An M.2 SSD is a solid-state drive (SSD) that conforms to a computer industry specification written for internally mounted storage expansion cards of a small form factor.
  • MO-297 - MO-297 is a JEDEC standard that defines the layout, connector positions and physical dimensions for a 54mm x 39mm solid state drive (SSD) with a Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) connector.
  • mSATA SSD (mSATA solid-state drive) - An mSATA SSD is a small-form-factor solid-state drive designed for portable devices such as laptops and tablets.
  • multi-level cell (MLC) - Multi-level cell flash is a type of NAND flash memory that can store more than 1 bit per cell.
  • NAND flash wear-out - NAND flash wear-out is the breakdown of the oxide layer within the floating-gate transistors of NAND flash memory.
  • NAND mirroring - NAND mirroring has been proposed to break the security in certain portable devices that use NAND flash memory for encryption.
  • NetApp SolidFire - NetApp SolidFire is a business division of NetApp Inc.
  • NVDIMM (Non-Volatile Dual In-line Memory Module) - An NVDIMM (non-volatile dual in-line memory module) is hybrid computer memory that retains data during a service outage.
  • NVMe (non-volatile memory express) - NVMe (non-volatile memory express) is a host controller interface and storage protocol created to accelerate the transfer of data between enterprise and client systems and solid-state drives over a computer's high-speed PCIe bus.
  • NVMe over Fabrics (NVMe-oF) - NVMe over Fabrics (NVMe-oF) is a technology specification designed to enable nonvolatile memory express message-based commands to transfer data between a host computer and a target solid-state storage device or system over a network, such as Ethernet, Fibre Channel (FC) or InfiniBand.
  • NVMe over Fibre Channel (NVMe over FC) or FC-NVMe standard - Nonvolatile memory express over Fibre Channel (NVMe over FC) -- which is implemented through the Fibre Channel-NVMe (FC-NVMe) standard -- is a technology specification designed to enable NVMe-based message commands to transfer data and status information between a host computer and a target storage subsystem over a Fibre Channel network fabric.
  • overprovisioning (SSD overprovisioning) - Overprovisioning, in a storage context, is the inclusion of extra storage capacity in a flash solid state drive (SSD).
  • P/E cycle - A solid-state-storage program-erase cycle is a sequence of events in which data is written to solid-state NAND flash memory cell (such as the type found in a so-called flash or thumb drive), then erased, and then rewritten.
  • PCIe SSD (PCIe solid-state drive) - A PCIe SSD (PCIe solid-state drive) is a high-speed expansion card that attaches a computer to its peripherals.
  • Pure Storage - Pure Storage is a provider of enterprise data flash storage solutions designed to substitute for electromechanical disk arrays.
  • queue depth - Queue depth, in storage, is the number of pending input/output (I/O) requests for a volume.
  • rack-scale flash - Rack-scale flash is flash-only storage that uses a high-speed interface to connect the storage more directly to the CPU than with a traditional storage array.
  • RAM-based solid state drive (SSD) - A RAM-based solid state drive is a storage device that is made from silicon microchips, has no moving parts and stores data electronically instead of magnetically.
  • read-intensive SSD (read-intensive solid-state drive) - A read-intensive solid-state drive (SSD) is a NAND flash-based storage or caching device used with applications that write data infrequently, in contrast to SSDs that target write-intensive workloads.
  • RRAM or ReRAM (resistive RAM) - RRAM or ReRAM (resistive random access memory) is a form of nonvolatile storage that operates by changing the resistance of a specially formulated solid dielectric material.
  • SAS SSD (Serial-Attached SCSI solid-state drive) - A SAS SSD (Serial-Attached SCSI solid-state drive) is a NAND flash-based storage or caching device designed to fit in the same slot as a hard disk drive (HDD) and use the SAS interface to connect to the host computer.
  • semiconductor fab - A semiconductor fab is a manufacturing plant in which raw silicon wafers are turned into integrated circuits.
  • server-based SSD - A server-based SSD is a solid state drive that may be manufactured in a PCI Express form factor.
  • short stroking - Short stroking is the practice of formatting a disk drive such that data is written only to the outer sectors of the disk's platters.
  • single-level cell (SLC) flash - Single-level cell (SLC) flash is a type of solid-state storage that stores one bit of data per cell of flash media.
  • Skyera - Skyera was an all-flash array vendor that Western Digital's HGST subsidiary purchased in an all-cash transaction in December 2014.
  • SNIA Solid-State Storage Initiative (SSSI) - The Solid State Storage Initiative (SSSI) is an initiative formed by the Storage Network Industry Association (SNIA) to help foster and grow the adoption of solid-state storage in enterprise and client environments.
  • solid state drive (SSD) capacity - solid state drive (SSD) capacity.
  • solid state module (SSM) - A solid state module is solid state storage that resides in a Dual In-line Memory Module (DIMM) or similar form factor.
  • solid state storage (SSS) garbage collection - Garbage collection, like TRIM, pro-actively eliminates the need for whole block erasures prior to every write operation.
  • solid state storage auto-tiering - Solid state storage auto tiering is automatically moving data that needs to accessed frequently to more expensive single-level cell (SLC) solid state storage and moving data that does not require frequent access to less expensive multi-level cell (MLC) solid state media or other lower cost, higher capacity drives.
  • Solid State Storage Performance Test Specification (SSS PTS) - Solid State Storage Performance Test Specification (SSS PTS) is a set of procedures for evaluating the performance of NAND-based solid state storage (SSS).
  • solid-state storage UBER - Solid-state storage UBER (unrecoverable bit error rate) is the percentage of bits that have errors relative to the total number of bits that have been read.
  • SSD (solid-state drive) - An SSD (solid-state drive) is a type of nonvolatile storage media that stores persistent data on solid-state flash memory.
  • SSD caching - SSD caching, also known as flash caching, is the temporary storage of data on NAND flash memory chips in a solid-state drive so data requests can be met with improved speed.
  • SSD form factor - An SSD form factor is the size, configuration or physical arrangement of solid state storage (SSS) media.
  • SSD purge (solid state drive purge) - SSD purge is the process of returning a flash memory device to its original state at the time of manufacturing and effectively erasing any data that has been written to the device.
  • SSD RAID (solid-state drive RAID) - SSD RAID (solid-state drive RAID) is a methodology commonly used to protect data by distributing redundant data blocks across multiple SSDs.
  • SSD TRIM - SSD TRIM is an Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) command that enables an operating system to inform a NAND flash solid-state drive (SSD) which data blocks it can erase because they are no longer in use.
  • SSD write cycle - An SSD write cycle is the process of programming data to a NAND flash memory chip in a solid-state storage device.
  • stand-alone solid state storage (SSS) - Stand-alone SSS is solid state storage that is not integrated with spinning hard drive disks as in a hybrid flash array.
  • steady state - Steady state is a condition in which a solid state flash drive has experienced enough program/erase (P/E) cycles that performance times for write operations becomes stable and can be evaluated in a consistent manner.
  • Tier 0 - Tier 0 (tier zero) is a level of data storage that is faster, and perhaps more expensive, than any other level in the storage hierarchy.
  • TLC flash (triple-level cell flash) - TLC flash (triple-level cell flash) is a type of NAND flash memory that stores three bits of data per cell.
  • tunnel injection - Tunnel injection, also called Fowler-Nordheim tunnel injection, is the process by which data is written to NAND flash memory.
  • tunnel release - Tunnel release, also called Fowler-Nordheim tunnel release, is the process by which data is erased from NAND flash memory.
  • U.2 SSD (formerly SFF-8639) - A U.2 SSD is a high-performance data storage device designed to support the Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe) interface using a small form factor (SFF) connector that is also compatible with standard Serial-Attached SCSI (SAS) and Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA)-based spinning disks and solid-state drives (SSDs).
  • wear leveling - Wear leveling is a process that is designed to extend the life of solid-state storage devices.
  • write amplification - Write amplification is an issue that occurs in solid state storage devices that can decrease the lifespan of the device and impact performance.
  • write amplification factor (WAF) - Write amplification factor (WAF) is a numerical value that represents the amount of data a solid state storage controller has to write in relation to the amount of data that the host’s flash controller has to write.
  • write endurance - Write endurance is the number of program/erase (P/E cycles) that can be applied to a block of flash memory before the storage media becomes unreliable.

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