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Anti-virus, antimalware

Terms related to spyware, including definitions about malware and words and phrases about online advertising, adware and online privacy.

ACO - WIR

  • acoustical infection - Acoustic infection is a type of malware that uses a compromised computer’s sound card and speakers to send data using a covert ultrasonic acoustical mesh network.
  • ActiveX - ActiveX is a set of object-oriented programming technologies Microsoft developed for Internet Explorer to facilitate rich media playback.
  • ActiveX control - An ActiveX control is a component program object that can be re-used by many application programs within a computer or among computers in a network.
  • ActiveX Data Objects (ADO) - ActiveX Data Objects (ADO) is an application program interface from Microsoft that lets a programmer writing Windows applications get access to a relational or non-relational database from both Microsoft and other database providers.
  • adware - Adware is any software application in which advertising banners are displayed while a program is running.
  • anonymous Web surfing (Web anonymizer, SafeWeb) - Anonymous Web surfing allows a user to visit Web sites without allowing anyone to gather information about which sites the user visited.
  • anti-spyware software - Anti-spyware software is a type of program designed to prevent and detect unwanted spyware program installations and to remove those programs if installed.
  • backdoor (computing) - A backdoor is a means to access a computer system or encrypted data that bypasses the system's customary security mechanisms.
  • barnacle - In a computer, a barnacle is unwanted programming, such as adware or spyware, that is downloaded and installed along with a user-requested program.
  • BIOS rootkit - A BIOS-level rootkit is programming that exists in a system's memory hardware to enable remote administration.
  • bluesnarfing - Bluesnarfing is the theft of information from a wireless device through a Bluetooth connection.
  • bot (robot) - A bot (short for "robot") is a program that operates as an agent for a user or another program or simulates a human activity.
  • browser hijacker (browser hijacking) - A browser hijacker is a malware program that modifies web browser settings without the user's permission and redirects the user to websites the user had not intended to visit.
  • bundling - In purchasing, bundling is the practice of marketing two or more products or services in a single package with one price.
  • cache poisoning (DNS poisoning, web cache poisoning) - Cache poisoning is an attack vector that exploits the way domain name system (DNS) clients and web servers improve performance by saving old responses for a specified period of time in a temporary storage area called cache.
  • canvas fingerprinting (CPF) - Canvas fingerprinting (CPF) is a surreptitious online user tracking technique that relies on minute differences in text or images drawn on command by users’ browsers.
  • clipboard hijack attack - A clipboard hijacking is an exploit in which the attacker gains control of the victim's clipboard and replaces its contents with their own data, such as a link to a malicious Web site.
  • COMINT (communications intelligence) - Communications intelligence (COMINT) is information gathered from the communications of individuals, including telephone conversations, text messages and various types of online interactions.
  • contextual marketing - Contextual marketing is an online marketing model in which people are served with targeted advertising based on their current page or recent browsing behavior.
  • cookie - A cookie is information that a Web site puts on your hard disk so that it can remember something about you at a later time.
  • cookie poisoning - On the Web, cookie poisoning is the modification of a cookie (personal information in a Web user's computer) by an attacker to gain unauthorized information about the user for purposes such as identity theft.
  • Crash Course: Spyware - In general, spyware is any technology that aids in gathering information about a person or organization without their knowledge.
  • data integrity - Data integrity is the assurance that digital information is uncorrupted and can only be accessed or modified by those authorized to do so.
  • DelFly - DelFly is a remotely controlled, camera-equipped, highly maneuverable aerial robot measuring less than 30 centimeters (12 inches) in length.
  • digital footprint - A digital footprint, sometimes called a digital dossier, is the body of data that exists as a result of actions and communications online that can in some way be traced back to an individual.
  • drive-by download - A drive-by download is a program that is automatically downloaded to your computer without your consent or even your knowledge.
  • electronic discovery (e-discovery or ediscovery) - Electronic discovery (also called e-discovery or ediscovery) refers to any process in which electronic data is sought, located, secured, and searched with the intent of using it as evidence in a civil or criminal legal case.
  • ELINT (electronic intelligence) - Electronic intelligence (ELINT) is intelligence gathered by the use of electronic sensors.
  • email spam - Email spam, or junk email, is unsolicited bulk messages sent through email with commercial, fraudulent or malicious intent.
  • encryption - Encryption is the method by which information is converted into secret code that hides the information's true meaning.
  • evil twin - An evil twin, in security, is a rogue wireless access point that masquerades as a legitimate hot spot.
  • Firesheep - Firesheep is a Firefox plug-in that automates session hijacking attacks over unsecured Wi-Fi networks.
  • firewall - A firewall is software or firmware that enforces a set of rules about what data packets will be allowed to enter or leave a computer network.
  • freeware - Freeware (not to be confused with free software) is programming that is offered at no cost and is a common class of small applications available for downloading and use in most operating systems.
  • Google Titan - Google Titan is a security chip designed to protect computers from firmware-based rootkits and other malware-infecting firmware.
  • gyroscope - A gyroscope is a device with a spinning disc or wheel mechanism that harnesses the principle of conservation of angular momentum: the tendency for the spin of a system to remain constant unless subjected to external torque.
  • hot mic (roving bug) - A hot mic, in a mobile security context, is a smartphone microphone that has been remotely activated for surveillance purposes.
  • hotword - Hotword is an audio listening module included with Google Chrome and Chromium, the open source version of the browser.
  • identity theft - Identity theft, also known as identity fraud, is a crime in which an imposter obtains key pieces of personally identifiable information, such as Social Security or driver's license numbers, in order to impersonate someone else.
  • industrial espionage - Industrial espionage is the covert and sometimes illegal practice of investigating competitors, usually to gain a business advantage.
  • JavaScript - JavaScript is a programming language that started off simply as a mechanism to add logic and interactivity to an otherwise static Netscape browser.
  • Kazaa Media Desktop (KMD) - Kazaa (its full name is Kazaa Media Desktop or KMD) is a decentralized Internet peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing program owned by Sharman Networks.
  • keyboard vibration attack - Although there have been no reports of keyboard vibration attacks in the wild, Georgia Tech researchers found a method to exploit the accelerometer in an iPhone to record keystrokes.
  • keylogger (keystroke logger or system monitor) - A keylogger, sometimes called a keystroke logger or system monitor, is a type of surveillance technology used to monitor and record each keystroke typed on a specific computer's keyboard.
  • Learning Guide: Spyware - Why spyware isn't just a home-user problem.
  • malvertizement - A malvertizement is malicious coding served through an ad on a Web site or in an email message.
  • malware (malicious software) - Malware, or malicious software, is any program or file that is harmful to a computer user.
  • Malwarebytes software - Malwarebytes is a cross-platform anti-malware program that detects and removes malware and other rogue software.
  • messaging security - Messaging security is a subcategory of unified threat management (UTM) focused on securing and protecting an organization’s communication infrastructure.
  • microphone hacking - Microphone hacking is the unauthorized interception of audio data captured through the microphone on a computer, smartphone or other device.
  • mobile malware - Mobile malware is malicious software specifically written to attack mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets, and smartwatches.
  • mobile spyware - Mobile spyware is monitoring software that is installed on a mobile device without the end user's knowledge.
  • personalization - On a Web site, personalization is the process of tailoring pages to individual users' characteristics or preferences.
  • pharming - Pharming is a scamming practice in which malicious code is installed on a personal computer or server, misdirecting users to fraudulent Web sites without their knowledge or consent.
  • phishing kit - A phishing kit is a collection of tools assembled to make it easier for people with little technical skill to launch a phishing exploit.
  • pop-up blocker (pop-up killer) - A pop-up blocker (sometimes called a pop-up killer) is a program that prevents pop-ups from displaying in a user's Web browser.
  • pop-up download (or download pop-up) - A pop-up download (sometimes called a download pop-up) is a pop-up window that asks the user to download a program to their computer's hard drive.
  • pre-installed malware - Pre-installed malware is malicious software that is put on a machine before it is delivered to the user.
  • Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) - Pretty Good Privacy or PGP is a popular program used to encrypt and decrypt email over the Internet, as well as authenticate messages with digital signatures and encrypted stored files.
  • principle of least privilege (POLP) - The principle of least privilege (POLP), an important concept in computer security, is the practice of limiting access rights for users to the bare minimum permissions they need to perform their work.
  • privacy - On the Internet, privacy, a major concern of users, can be divided into these concerns: What personal information can be shared with whom Whether messages can be exchanged without anyone else seeing them Whether and how one can send messages anonymously Personal Information Privacy Most Web users want to understand that personal information they share will not be shared with anyone else without their permission.
  • pseudonymous profile - A pseudonymous profile is a collection of information about a particular computer user that identifies the user either by their computer's IP address or by a randomly-generated nickname.
  • PUP (potentially unwanted program) - A PUP (potentially unwanted program) is a program that may be unwanted, despite the possibility that users consented to download it.
  • RAT (remote access Trojan) - A remote access Trojan (RAT) is a malware program that gives an intruder administrative control over a target computer.
  • rootkit - A rootkit is a program or, more often, a collection of software tools that gives a threat actor remote access to and control over a computer or other system.
  • scareware - Scareware is a type of malware designed to trick victims into purchasing and downloading useless and potentially dangerous software.
  • shareware - Shareware is software that is distributed free on a trial basis with the understanding that the user may need or want to pay for it later.
  • SIGINT (signals intelligence) - SIGINT (signals intelligence) is information gained by the collection and analysis of the electronic signals and communications of a given target.
  • snoopware - In mobile computing, snoopware is malware that is capable of monitoring activity on a smartphone.
  • spambot - A spambot is a program designed to collect, or harvest, e-mail addresses from the Internet in order to build mailing lists for sending unsolicited e-mail, also known as spam.
  • spear phishing - Spear phishing is an email spoofing attack that targets a specific organization or individual, seeking unauthorized access to sensitive information.
  • spyware - Spyware is software that is installed on a computing device without the user's knowledge.
  • Spyware glossary - Print out for a handy reference guide or browse online to connect to full definitions and more information.
  • SS7 attack - While the SS7 network is fundamental to cellphones and its operators, the security of the design relied entirely on trust.
  • surveillance metadata - Surveillance metadata is details about data pertaining to the actions of an observed party.
  • Top 10 Spyware Threats - Visit our spyware feature page to learn more about this problem and how SMBs can beat it.
  • transient cookie (session cookie) - On the Web, a transient cookie, sometimes called a session cookie, is a small file that contains information about a user that disappears when the user's browser is closed.
  • URL poisoning (location poisoning) - URL poisoning, also known as location poisoning, is a method of tracking Web user behavior by adding an identification (ID) number to the page address (Uniform Resource Locator) line of the Web browser when a user visits a particular site.
  • voice authentication - Voice authentication is a biometric method of speaker recognition based on measuring the distinctions in individual voices to uniquely identify users.
  • war driving (access point mapping) - War driving, also called access point mapping, is the act of locating and possibly exploiting connections to wireless local area networks while driving around a city or elsewhere.
  • Web bug (Web beacon) - A Web bug, also known as a Web beacon, is a file object (usually a graphic image such as a transparent GIF) that is placed on a Web page or in an e-mail message to monitor user behavior.
  • Windows Defender Exploit Guard - Windows Defender Exploit Guard (EG) is an anti-malware software developed by Microsoft that provides intrusion protection for users with the Windows 10 operating system (OS).
  • Windows Genuine Advantage (WGA) - Windows Genuine Advantage (WGA) is a program that investigates Windows -based computers to be sure that their copy of the Windows operating system (OS) is legitimate.
  • Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) - Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a security protocol, specified in the IEEE Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) standard, 802.
  • wiretap Trojan - A wiretap Trojan is a program that surreptitiously records VoIP calls.
  • wiretapping - Wiretapping is the surreptitious electronic monitoring of telephone, telegraph, cellular, fax or Internet-based communications.

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