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Storage hardware

Terms related to storage hardware, including definitions about solid state drives and words and phrases about hard disk drives, tape drives, disk arrays and tiered storage.

3D - GRI

  • 3D NAND flash - 3D NAND is a type of flash memory in which memory cells are stacked vertically in layers, in comparison to planar NAND, which uses a single layer of memory cells.
  • 3D XPoint - 3D XPoint is memory storage technology jointly developed by Intel and Micron Technology Inc.
  • 8-track tape - An 8-track tape is a hard plastic cartridge about the size of an external modem that houses a continuous loop of non-digital (analog) audio data stored on magnetic tape.
  • active/active array - Active/active (also called dual active) is a storage array configuration in which two (or more) storage controllers work together to process inputs/outputs (I/Os).
  • ADAT (Alesis Digital Audio Tape) - The ADAT (a registered trademark of Alesis) is an eight-track digital tape recorder that caught the recording industry by storm when it was first released in the early 1990s.
  • ADPCM (adaptive differential pulse-code modulation) - ADPCM (adaptive differential pulse-code modulation) is a technique for converting sound or analog information to binary information (a string of 0's and 1's) by taking frequent samples of the sound and expressing the value of the sampled sound modulation in binary terms.
  • all-flash array (AFA) - An all-flash array (AFA), also known as a solid-state storage disk system, is an external storage array that uses only flash media for persistent storage.
  • Andrew file system (AFS) - An Andrew file system (AFS) is a location-independent file system that uses a local cache to reduce the workload and increase the performance of a distributed computing environment.
  • application-aware storage - Application-aware storage is a storage system with built-in intelligence about relevant applications and their utilization patterns.
  • archival storage - In computers, archival storage is storage for data that may not be actively needed but is kept for possible future use or for record-keeping purposes.
  • array-based memory - Array-based memory is an evolving solid-state storage technology similar to flash memory but with potentially greater storage capacity.
  • array-based SSD - An array-based SSD is a solid state drive manufactured in a form factor that can be installed in a typical storage array.
  • ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment) - ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment) is the official name that American National Standards Institute group X3T10 uses for what the computer industry calls Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE).
  • atomic storage (atomic memory) - Atomic storage (sometimes called atomic memory) is a nanotechnology approach to computer data storage that works with bits and atoms on the individual level.
  • backup robot - A backup robot is an automated external USB storage device that supports multiple removable SATA hard drives.
  • backup storage device - A data storage device for backup makes copies of data actively in use.
  • bit (binary digit) - A bit (short for binary digit) is the smallest unit of data in a computer.
  • burn-in - Burn-in is a test in which a system or component is made to run for an extended period of time to detect problems.
  • cache algorithm - A cache algorithm is a detailed list of instructions that decides which items should be discarded in a computer's cache of information.
  • CD burner (CD recorder) - A CD burner is the informal name for a CD recorder, a device that can record data to a compact disc.
  • CD-Bridge Disc - A CD-Bridge Disc (sometimes just called a bridge disc) is a compact disc (CD) format that includes extra information on a CD-ROM XA (extended architecture) track, so that the disc can be played on either a CD-i (interactive) player attached to a television, or a CD-ROM XA drive attached to a computer.
  • CD-i (Compact Disc - interactive) - CD-i (Compact Disc - interactive) is the multimedia CD format specified in 1986 (in the Green Book).
  • CD-Magneto Optical (CD-MO) - CD-Magneto Optical (CD-MO) is a compact disc format that uses magnetic fields for data storage.
  • CD-R (compact disc, recordable) - CD-R (for compact disc, recordable) is a type of write once, read many (WORM) compact disc (CD) format that allows one-time recording on a disc.
  • CD-ROM - .
  • CD-ROM XA (Compact Disc - read-only-memory, extended architecture) - CD-ROM XA (Compact Disc - read-only-memory, extended architecture) is a modification of CD-ROM that defines two new types of sectors that enable it to read and display data, graphics, video, and audio at the same time.
  • CD-RW (compact disc, rewriteable) - CD-RW (for compact disc, rewriteable) is a compact disc (CD) format that allows repeated recording on a disc.
  • CDDI (Copper Distributed Data Interface) - For a local area network (LAN), CDDI (Copper Distributed Data Interface) is a standard for data transmission based on FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) that uses shielded twisted-pair (STP) or unshielded twisted pair (UTP) copper wire instead of fiber optic lines.
  • CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access) - CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access) refers to any of several protocols used in second-generation (2G) and third-generation (3G) wireless communications.
  • CDMA One (cdmaOne or code-division multiple access one) - Also see CDMA, WCDMA, and CDMA2000.
  • CDMA2000 (IMT-CDMA Multi-Carrier or code-division multiple access 2000) - CDMA2000, also known as IMT-CDMA Multi-Carrier or 1xRTT, is a code-division multiple access (CDMA) version of the IMT-2000 standard developed by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
  • CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data) - CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data) is a specification for supporting wireless access to the Internet and other public packet-switched networks.
  • CDSL (Consumer Digital Subscriber Line) - Also see our Fast guide to DSL.
  • Cisco HyperFlex - HyperFlex systems combine software-defined storage and data services software with Cisco UCS (unified computing system), a converged infrastructure system that integrates computing, networking and storage resources to increase efficiency and enable centralized management.
  • client solid state drive (SSD) - Client solid state drive (SSD) is a marketing term used by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and value-added resellers (VARs) to differentiate between solid state drives built for consumers and solid state drives built for the enterprise.
  • cloud management - Cloud management is the exercise of administrative control over public, private and hybrid clouds.
  • cloud storage gateway - A cloud storage gateway is a hardware- or software-based appliance that serves as a bridge between local applications and remote cloud-based storage.
  • cluster quorum disk - A cluster quorum disk is the storage medium on which the configuration database is stored for a cluster computing network.
  • clustered network-attached storage (clustered NAS) - A clustered NAS system is a distributed file system that runs concurrently on multiple NAS nodes.
  • column address strobe - In computer memory technology, CAS (column address strobe) is a signal sent to a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) that tells it that an associated address is a column address.
  • commodity - A commodity is a type of widely-available product that is not markedly dissimilar from one unit to another.
  • commodity hardware - Commodity hardware, in an IT context, is a device or device component that is relatively inexpensive, widely available and more or less interchangeable with other hardware of its type.
  • compact disc (CD) - A compact disc is a portable storage medium that can be used for recording, storing and playing back audio, video and other data in digital form.
  • CompactFlash card (CF card) - A CompactFlash card (CF card) is a memory card format developed by SanDisk in 1994 that uses flash memory technology to store data on a very small portable device.
  • conductive metal-oxide (CMOx) technology - Conductive metal-oxide (CMOx) technology is a nonvolatile storage technology that works by moving oxygen ions between conductive and insulating metal-oxide layers within a single chip.
  • conventional memory - DOS memory, sometimes referred to as conventional memory, refers to the memory -addressing scheme used in the original IBM and compatible PCs.
  • converged infrastructure reference architecture - A converged infrastructure reference architecture is a document that stipulates the components, design and configuration a CI appliance, which includes storage, compute and networking resources within a single-box system.
  • converged secondary storage - Converged secondary storage is a combination of common data protection elements and non-primary storage tasks into one platform.
  • D-VHS (Digital Video Home System) - D-VHS (Digital Video Home System) is a digital enhancement of the Video Home System (VHS) videocassette recording (VCR) technology that was developed by Japan Victor Company (JVC) in 1976.
  • DASD (direct access storage device) - Direct access storage device (DASD, pronounced DAZ-dee), is a general term for magnetic disk storage devices.
  • data center capacity planning - Data center capacity planning ensures that an IT organization has enough facility space, power and computing resources to support average and peak workloads.
  • data storage - Data storage is the collective methods and technologies that capture and retain digital information on electromagnetic, optical or silicon-based storage media.
  • datacard - A datacard is any removable computer component, approximately the size of a credit card, that contains data, or that contains nonvolatile memory to which data can be written and from which data can be recovered.
  • Dell EMC - Dell EMC is an American multinational technology company that offers products and services across all areas of computing, networking and storage.
  • desktop NAS - Desktop NAS (network-attached storage) is a device that stores and serves the file-level data of networked computers.
  • Digital Data Storage (DDS, DDS-1, DDS-2, DDS-3, DDS-4) - Digital Data Storage (DDS) is a format for storing and backing up computer data on tape that evolved from the Digital Audio Tape (DAT) technology.
  • disk cache - A disk cache is a mechanism for improving the time it takes to read from or write to a hard disk.
  • disk cloning - Disk cloning is the act of copying the contents of a computer's hard drive.
  • disk duplexing - Disk duplexing is a variation of disk mirroring in which each of multiple storage disks has its own SCSI controller.
  • disk image - A disk image is a copy of the entire contents of a storage device, such as a hard drive, DVD, or CD.
  • disk striping - Disk striping divides data into blocks and spreads the blocks across hard disks or solid-state drives to accelerate read and write access.
  • disk-to-disk-to-tape (D2D2T) - Disk-to-disk-to-tape (D2D2T) is an approach to computer storage backup and archiving in which data is initially copied to backup storage on a disk and then later on copied again to tape.
  • diskette (floppy disk) - A diskette is a random access, removable data storage medium that can be used with personal computers.
  • DLT (digital linear tape) - Before the popular Linear Tape-Open Consortium came into existence, Quantum had its proprietary digital linear tape (DLT) format.
  • Double-Density Compact Disk (DDCD) - Double-Density Compact Disk (DDCD) is a CD format that increases the storage capacity of the disk through means such as increasing the number of tracks and pits (scores on the disk that are used to encode the data).
  • double-parity RAID - Double-parity RAID (redundant array of independent disks), also called diagonal-parity RAID, Advanced Data Guarding (RAID_ADG), or RAID-6, is a method of protecting against multiple storage drive failures by creating two sets of parity data on an array of hard disks.
  • DRBD (Distributed Replicated Block Device) - DRBD (Distributed Replicated Block Device) is a Linux-based software component that facilitates the replacement of shared storage systems by networked mirroring.
  • DVD (digital video disk) - DVD is an optical disc technology with a 4.
  • DVD-RAM - DVD-RAM is a DVD(optical disc) technology for high-capacity data storage for computers.
  • EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code)  - EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code ) (pronounced either "ehb-suh-dik" or "ehb-kuh-dik") is a binary code for alphabetic and numeric characters that IBM developed for its larger operating systems.
  • ECOphlex (PHase-change Liquid EXchange) - ECOphlex (PHase-change Liquid EXchange) is an efficient and environmentally-friendly computer component cooling technology.
  • EDRAM (enhanced dynamic random access memory) - EDRAM (enhanced dynamic random access memory) is dynamic random access memory (dynamic or power-refreshed RAM) that includes a small amount of static RAM (SRAM) inside a larger amount of DRAM so that many memory accesses will be to the faster SRAM.
  • EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) - EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) is user-modifiable read-only memory (ROM) that can be erased and reprogrammed (written to) repeatedly through the application of higher than normal electrical voltage.
  • enhanced CD (E-CD) - Enhanced CD (E-CD) is a compact disc (CD) format that enables discs to be played on either a CD player or a multimedia-capable device, such as a CD-i player, or a DVD-ROM, or CD-ROM drive, where added material can be displayed.
  • enterprise MLC (eMLC) - Enterprise MLC (eMLC) is a type of MLC flash that has been enhanced to accommodate more write cycles than consumer-grade MLC flash offers.
  • enterprise SSD (enterprise solid-state drive) - An enterprise SSD (also known as an enterprise solid-state drive or enterprise solid-state disk) stores data persistently or caches data temporarily in nonvolatile memory and generally provides higher performance and greater endurance than consumer or client SSDs.
  • EPROM - EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory) is programmable read-only memory (programmable ROM) that can be erased and re-used.
  • ESCD (Extended System Configuration Data) - In personal computers with Windows, ESCD (Extended System Configuration Data) is data that provides a computer's BIOS and the operating system with information for communicating with plug and play (PnP) devices.
  • ESDRAM (Enhanced Synchronous DRAM) - ESDRAM (Enhanced Synchronous DRAM), made by Enhanced Memory Systems, includes a small static RAM in the SDRAM chip.
  • Express Bay - Express Bay is an externally accessible storage slot that is designed to accept a high-performance PCI Express (PCIe) solid-state drive (SSD),.
  • failover cluster - A failover cluster is a group of servers that work together to maintain high availability of applications and services.
  • fan-out ratio - A fan-out ratio is the relationship in quantity between a single port on a storage device and the number of servers that are attached to it.
  • FDISK - WARNING: Use caution when repartitioning a hard disk drive that contains data.
  • Fibre Channel port names - Fibre Channel port names.
  • Flash - Flash, a popular authoring software developed by Macromedia, is used to create vector graphics-based animation programs with full-screen navigation interfaces, graphic illustrations, and simple interactivity in an antialiased, resizable file format that is small enough to stream across a normal modem connection.
  • flash cache appliance - A NAND flash cache appliance is a dedicated network appliance that resides between the hosts and underlying storage arrays.
  • flash controller (flash memory controller) - A flash controller is the part of solid-state flash memory that communicates with the host device and manages the flash file system directory.
  • flash file system - Flash file systems are designed specifically for memory devices.
  • flash memory - Flash memory, also known as flash storage, is a type of nonvolatile memory that erases data in units called blocks.
  • flash storage - Flash storage is any type of drive, repository or system that uses flash memory to keep data for an extended period of time.
  • flash-based solid state drive (SSD) - A flash solid state drive (SSD)  is a non-volatile storage device that stores persistent data in flash memory.
  • floating gate transistor (FGT) - A floating gate transistor (FGT) is a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology capable of holding an electrical charge in a memory device that is used to store data.
  • FRAM (ferroelectric RAM) - FRAM (ferroelectric RAM) is random access memory that combines the fast read and write access of dynamic RAM (DRAM) - the most common kind of personal computer memory - with the ability to retain data when power is turned off (as do other non-volatile memory devices such as ROM and flash memory).
  • fresh out of the box (FOB) - Fresh out of the box (FOB) is a term used in solid state storage (SSS) to describe a flash memory device that has experienced few or no program/erase (P/E) cycles since the device was manufactured.
  • green cloud - Green cloud is a label that describes the potential environmental benefits that information technology services delivered over the Internet can offer society.
  • green networking - Green networking is the practice of selecting energy-efficient networking technologies and products, and minimizing resource use whenever possible.
  • green storage - Green storage is the practice of using a variety of "clean energy" storage methods and products to cut down on a data center's carbon footprint, as well as cost.
  • grid storage - Grid storage is a general term for any approach to storing data that employs multiple self-contained storage nodes interconnected so that any node can communicate with any other node without the data having to pass through a centralized switch.
  • Gridstore HyperConverged Appliance (HCA) - Gridstore HyperConverged Appliance (HCA) is an all-flash storage device that includes compute, virtualization and networking resources.

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