Our printable Quick Start Glossary provides brief explanations for essential terminology related to project management. Online, the terms are linked to our full definitions for more in-depth information. Want to test your grasp of the concepts? Try our Project Management quiz.
action item - An action item is a discrete task that must be accomplished, usually by a single individual or a small team or group.
action plan - An action plan is a document that lists what steps must be taken in order to achieve a specific goal.
actionable - Actionable, in a business context, is an adjective referring to things that can be acted upon.
actionable intelligence - Actionable intelligence is information that can be acted upon, with the further implication that actions should be taken.
ad hoc analysis - Ad hoc analysis is the term commonly used in businesses to describe a product (analytical report, statistical analysis or model, or other report or summary of data) produced one time to answer a single, specific business question.
adhocracy - An adhocracy, in a business context, is a corporate culture based on the ability to adapt quickly to changing conditions.
Agile project management - Agile project management is an iterative approach to planning and guiding project processes.
Agile software development (ASD) - In software application development, agile software development (ASD) is a methodology for the creative process that anticipates the need for flexibility and applies a level of pragmatism into the delivery of the finished product.
Agile velocity - Velocity is a metric that predicts how much work an Agile software development team can successfully complete within a two-week sprint (or similar time-boxed period).
Agile retrospective - An Agile retrospective is a meeting that's held at the end of an iteration in Agile software development.
AMSI - AMSI is part of Infor Global Solutions and provides software solutions for construction management and property management.
angel investor - An angel investor, sometimes just referred to as an angel, is an individual who invests private funds in a company or product for personal reasons.
angel network - An angel network is a group of angel investors who have organized to invest collectively, operate more effectively and provide mutual support. Angel networks are also known as angel groups.
ASAP, ALAP and ATAP - ASAP, ALAP and ATAP are acronyms that stand for, respectively, as soon as possible, as late as possible and as timely as possible.
baseline - In project management, a baseline is a known state by which something is measured or compared.
beginning of life (BOL) - Beginning of life (BOL), in the context of manufacturing and product lifecycles, is the first stages of a product’s existence.
best practice - A best practice is a technique or methodology that, through experience and research, has been proven to reliably lead to a desired result.
big bang adoption - Big bang adoption is a hardware or software migration method that involves getting rid of the existing system and transferring all users to the new system simultaneously.
boil the ocean - To boil the ocean, in a business context, is to increase the scope of a project or task until it is practically impossible to accomplish as envisioned.
bug convergence - In a software development project, bug convergence is the point at which the number of bugs fixed exceeds the number of bugs reported.
burnout - Burnout is persistent physical, mental or emotional exhaustion caused by long-term stress, usually as a result of excessive workplace and/or personal responsibilities.
burn down chart - A burn down chart is a visual representation of the amount of work that still needs to be completed before the end of a project.
bus number - In project management, the bus number is the number of team members whose loss would endanger a project. For example, if there are two people on a team that are essential to a project's success, the project's bus number is two -- if those two team members were hit by a bus, the project would be in trouble.
business case - A business case is an argument, usually documented, that is intended to convince a decision maker to approve some kind of action.
business event management - Business event management is the practice of incorporating business logic into labeling events, communicating events and handling events.
business model - A business model is the conceptual structure supporting the viability of a business, including its purpose, its goals and its ongoing plans for achieving them.
business plan - A business model is the conceptual structure supporting the viability of a business, including its purpose, its goals and its ongoing plans for achieving them.
business process visibility - Business process visibility, also called process visibility, is the ability to accurately and completely view the processes, transactions and other activities operating within an enterprise.
change log - A change log is a record of requests for change (RFCs) submitted for all changes in a service.
change request - A change request is a formal proposal for an alteration to some product or system.
change management - Change management is a systematic approach to dealing with change, both from the perspective of an organization and on the individual level.
channel strategy - A channel strategy is a plan for guiding decisions about the path a product or service takes from production through delivery to the end user. There are three channels that must be considered: the sales channel, the product channel and the service channel.
Chief Operating Officer (COO) - A Chief Operating Officer (COO) is the corporate executive who oversees ongoing business operations within the company. The COO typically reports to the CEO (Chief Executive Officer).
Chief Risk Officer (CRO) - The chief risk officer (CRO) is the corporate executive tasked with assessing and mitigating significant competitive, regulatory and technological risks across the enterprise.
Chief Social Scientist (Senior Social Scientist) - A Chief (or Senior) Social Scientist is a sociologist who provides advice to government officials or corporate executives concerning the roles of individuals and institutions in human society.
clan culture - A clan culture is a family-like or tribe-like type of corporate environment that emphasizes consensus and commonality of goals and values.
class diagram - A class diagram is an illustration of the relationships and source code dependencies among classes in the Unified Modeling Language (UML).
clear box - A white box or clear box is a device, program or system whose internal workings are well understood.
closed loop manufacturing resource planning (MRP) - Closed loop manufacturing resource planning, also known as closed loop MRP (CLMRP), is a manufacturing resource planning model that includes returned products in the supply chain.
collaboration - Collaboration is a joint effort of multiple individuals or work groups to accomplish a task or project.
collaboration diagram - A collaboration diagram, also called a communication diagram or interaction diagram, is an illustration of the relationships and interactions among software objects in the Unified Modeling Language (UML).
collaboration platform - A collaboration platform is a category of business software that adds broad social networking capabilities to work processes.
commercial construction software - Commercial construction software is a collection of programs and processes that provides contractors with the information necessary to successfully bid on and complete commercial construction projects.
common test platform (CTP) - A common test platform (CTP), also called an open test standard (OTS), is a set of specifications defining test methods for diverse components of computer and electronic systems to be marketed as complete products.
communication diagram - A collaboration diagram, also called a communication diagram or interaction diagram, is an illustration of the relationships and interactions among software objects in the Unified Modeling Language (UML).
compliance - Compliance is a state in which someone or something is in accordance with established guidelines, specifications, or legislation. Software, for example, may be developed in compliance with specifications created by some industry body, such as the IETF.
compliance testing - see conformance testing.
conformance testing - Conformance testing, also known as compliance testing, is a methodology used in engineering to ensure that a product, process, computer program or system meets a defined set of standards.
continuous integration (CI) - Continuous integration (CI) is a software engineering practice in which isolated changes are immediately tested and reported on when they are added to a larger code base.
contingency plan - A contingency plan is a process that prepares an organization to respond coherently to an unplanned event.
corporate culture model - A corporate culture model is the organizing principle behind the values, beliefs and attitudes that characterize a company and guide its practices.
cost-benefit analysis (CBA) - Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is an analytical tool for assessing and the pros and cons of moving forward with a business proposal.
cost center - A cost center is part of an organization that does not produce direct profit and adds to the cost of running a company.
cost management - Cost management is the process of planning and controlling the budget of a business or project. Cost management is a form of management accounting that allows a business to predict impending expenditures to help reduce the chance of going over budget.
Craftsman Costs Books - The Craftsman Costs Books are a series of books that have become an industry standard for estimators to use to determine the costs of potential projects.
crisis management - Crisis management is the application of strategies designed to help an organization deal with a sudden and significant negative event.
critical path method (CPM) - CPM is a step-by-step project management technique for process planning that defines critical and non-critical tasks with the goal of preventing time-frame problems and process bottlenecks.
customer - In agile software development, a customer is a person with an understanding of both the business needs and operational constraints for a project.
data-driven decision management (DDDM) - Data-driven decision management (DDDM) is an approach to business governance that values decisions that can be backed up with data that can be verified.
data-driven disaster - A data-driven disaster is a serious problem caused by one or more ineffective data analysis processes.
demand planning - Demand planning is a multi-step operational supply chain management (SCM) process used to create reliable forecasts.
development-operations (DevOps) - development-operations (DevOps) DevOps is the blending of tasks performed by a company's application development and systems operations teams.
discrete event simulation (DES) - Discrete event simulation (DES) is the process of codifying the behavior of a complex system as an ordered sequence of well-defined events.
distributor agreement (distribution agreement) - A distributor agreement, also known as a distribution agreement, is a contract between a vendor and a distributor that stipulates the responsibilities of both parties.
define, measure, analyze, design, verify (DMADV) - DMADV is a process defined by Motorola as part of their Six Sigma management philosophy.
define, measure, analyze, improve, control (DMAIC) - DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) is an approach to problem-solving defined by Motorola as part of the Six Sigma management philosophy.
definition of done – The definition of done is a checklist of criteria that a product, product increment or project must satisfy to be considered completed.
dynamic analysis - Dynamic analysis is the testing and evaluation of a program by executing data in real-time.
embedded IT - Embedded IT is the process of inserting information technology staff and expertise into other business units in order to quickly and more effectively identify and pursue new business opportunities and increase the likelihood that IT projects are deployed successfully.
employee productivity - Employee productivity (sometimes referred to as workforce productivity) is an assessment of the efficiency of a worker or group of workers.
end of life (EOL) - End of life (EOL), in the context of manufacturing and product lifecycles, is the final stages of a product’s existence.
executive sponsor - An executive sponsor is a C-level administrator who has a vested interest in seeing a project to completion.
exit strategy - An exit strategy is a planned approach to terminating a situation in a way that will maximize benefit and/or minimize damage.
fist to five - Also called fist of five, this a technique used by agile software development teams to poll team members and help achieve consensus. Fist to five is similar to thumbs up, thumbs down or thumbs sideways.
free/busy data - Free/busy data is information about the availability of individuals within an organization at specified times.
goldbricking - Goldbricking is wasting time on the job.
golden handcuffs - Golden handcuffs are a type of financial incentives designed to motivate employees to stay with a company longer than they might otherwise do.
ideation management -Ideation management, sometimes referred to as idea management, is a formalization of the processes involved in gathering, sharing, analyzing and executing on ideas generated within an enterprise and its collaborative networks.
implementation - Implementation is the carrying out, execution, or practice of a plan, a method, or any design for doing something. Implementation is the action that must follow any preliminary thinking in order for something to actually happen.
Infinite Monkey Theorem - The Infinite Monkey Theorem is a proposition that an unlimited number of monkeys, given typewriters and sufficient time, will eventually produce a particular text, such as Hamlet or even the complete works of Shakespeare.
information radiator - An information radiator, also known as a Big Visible Chart (BVC), is a large graphical representation of project information kept plainly in sight within an agile development team’s shared workspace.
integration-centric business process management suite (IC-BPMS) - An integration-centric business process management suite (IC-BPMS) is a comprehensive approach to building and upgrading applications and Web services that combines the attributes of business process management (BPM) and service-oriented architecture (SOA).
interaction diagram - A collaboration diagram, also called a communication diagram or interaction diagram, is an illustration of the relationships and interactions among software objects in the Unified Modeling Language (UML).
interruption science - Interruption science is the study of how disruptions from current tasks affect employees on the job.
ISO/IEC 15504 - SPICE (Software Process Improvement and Capability dEtermination) is an international framework for assessment of software processes developed jointly by the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) and the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission). SPICE is specified in ISO/IEC 15504.
ISO/IEC 38500 - ISO/IEC 38500 is an international standard created to guide corporate governance of information technology (IT).
IT and business strategy - IT strategy is a comprehensive plan that information technology management professionals use to guide their organizations.
ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) - ITIL is a framework for IT service management that strives for predictable, maintainable services that align with the needs of the corporation or organization.
IT prioritization - IT prioritization is the process of initiating IT projects and procedures based on both the immediate and long-term needs of an organization.
IT project management - IT project management is the process of planning, organizing and delineating responsibility for the completion of organizations' specific information technology goals.
IT project manager - An IT project manager is a professional charged with overseeing the process of planning, executing and delegating responsibilities around an organization's technology pursuits and goals.
IT strategist (information technology strategist) - An IT strategist (information technology strategist) is someone in an organization who is given the responsibility and authority to establish initiatives that affect the organization's IT and business strategy.
iteration - In agile software development, an iteration is a single development cycle, usually measured as one week or two weeks.
iterative - In software development, iterative is used to describe a heuristic planning and development process where an application is developed in small sections called iterations.
ITIL v3 - ITIL v3 is the third version of the Information Technology Infrastructure Library, a globally recognized collection of best practices for managing information technology (IT).
Kaizen - Kaizen, also known as continuous improvement, is a long-term approach to work that systematically seeks to achieve small, incremental changes in processes in order to improve efficiency and quality.
job cost accounting - Job cost accounting is the process of assigning the costs you incur to a specific job you or your business is involved with.
just-in-case manufacturing (JIC manufacturing) - Just-in-case (JIC) manufacturing is the traditional model of production, in which products are created in advance and in excess of demand. According to the principles of lean production, the JIC model wastes resources because inventories must be maintained.
knowledge process outsourcing (KPO) - Knowledge process outsourcing (KPO) is the allocation of relatively high-level tasks to an outside organization or a different group (possibly in a different geographic location) within the same organization.
market culture - A market culture is a type of corporate culture that emphasizes competitiveness not only between the organization and its market competitors but also between employees.
marketecture (or marchitecture) - A marketecture (or marchitecture) is a high-level representation of software or hardware architecture designed with marketing requirements as a primary consideration.
micromanagement - Micromanagement is a style of employee oversight characterized by excessive observation and control.
Microsoft Operations Framework (MOF) - Microsoft Operations Framework (MOF) is a series of 23 documents that guide IT professionals through the processes of creating, implementing and managing efficient and cost-effective services.
Microsoft Project (Microsoft Office Project) - Microsoft Project is a suite of tools for more efficient project management. Microsoft Project can be used in a variety of industries including construction, manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, government, retail, financial services and health care.
middle of life (MOL) - Middle of life (MOL), in the context of manufacturing and product lifecycles, is the segment of a product’s existence in which it is established in the marketplace.
milestone - In project management, a milestone is a synchronization point.
mission mode project (MMP) - A mission mode project (MMP) is an individual project within the National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) that focuses on one aspect of electronic governance, such as banking, land records or commercial taxes.
mission statement - A mission statement is a communication of an organization’s purpose, usually expressed with public relations (PR) or marketing in mind.
moonshot - A moonshot, in a technology context, is an ambitious, exploratory and ground-breaking project undertaken without any expectation of near-term profitability or benefit and also, perhaps, without a full investigation of potential risks and benefits.
parallel adoption - Parallel adoption is a method of hardware or software migration that involves using the existing and new systems simultaneously until the implementation is judged to be complete and satisfactory.
Pareto principle - The Pareto principle, also known as the 80/20 rule, is a theory maintaining that 80 percent of the output from a given situation or system is determined by 20 percent of the input.
performance testing - Performance testing is the process of determining the speed or effectiveness of a computer, network, software program or device.
phased rollout - Phased rollout is a hardware or software migration or deployment method that involves incremental implementation of a new system.
pigs and chickens -- Pigs and chickens is an analogy used in the Scrum software development model to define the type of role an attendee can play at a daily scrum meeting.
PICK (possible, implement, challenge and kill) chart - A PICK is a visual tool for organizing ideas. The purpose of a PICK chart is to identify which ideas can be implemented easily and have a high payoff.
pilot conversion - A pilot conversion is a hardware or software migration method that involves rolling out the new system to a small group of users for testing and evaluation.
pilot program (pilot study) - A pilot program, also called a feasibility study or experimental trial, is a small-scale experiment that helps an organization learn how a large-scale project might work in practice.
planning board - In agile software development, a planning board is used to track the progress of an project.
planning game - In agile software development, a planning game is a meeting attended by both IT and business teams that is focused on choosing stories for a release or iteration.
planning poker - Planning Poker is a teambuilding activity for achieving group consensus. It is used by agile software development teams to estimate how long a component of a software project (story) will take to complete.
plus, minus, interesting retrospective (PMI) - PMI is a brainstorming activity that encourages participants in a discussion to look at an idea from more than one viewpoint.
pomodoro technique - The pomodoro technique is a time management method based on 25-minute stretches of focused work broken by 3-to-5 minute breaks and 15-to-30 minute breaks following the completion of four work periods.
PRINCE2 - PRINCE2 is a project management methodology developed by the government of the United Kingdom (UK) and used internationally, especially in information technology (IT) environments.
Primavera - Primavera Systems Inc. provides project and program management software for the architecture, engineering and construction industries. Focused on project portfolio management, or PPM, Primavera's solutions let users measure progress, assure governance, improve team collaboration and prioritize project investments and resources.
privilege bracketing - Privilege bracketing is the practice of limiting temporarily increased permission levels to the briefest possible time period.
process-centric BPM - Process-centric business process management is a holistic approach to BPM that centers on processes themselves, rather than individual components such as documents, workflow or people.
product development - Product development is a broad field of endeavor dealing with the design, creation, and marketing of new products.
product lifecycle - The product lifecycle is the collective stages that a product goes through from its conception and design through to its ultimate disposal.
product lifecycle sustainability - Product lifecycle sustainability is an approach to managing the stages of a product’s existence so that any negative impact on the environment is minimized.
product owner - The product owner is a role in scrum development of the person who represents the business or user community.
program evaluation review technique chart (PERT chart) - A PERT chart is a project management tool used to schedule, organize, and coordinate tasks within a project.
project and portfolio management (PPM) - PPM (project and portfolio management) is a methodology used to prioritize IT projects based on cost, benefits and use of resources to achieve business goals.
project charter (PC) - A project charter (PC) is a document that states a project exists and provides the project manager with written authority to begin work.
project management - Project management is a methodical approach to planning and guiding project processes from start to finish.
Project Management Office (PMO) - A Project Management Office (PMO) is a group or department within a business, agency or enterprise that defines and maintains standards for project management within the organization.
Project Management Professional (PMP) - Project Management Professional (PMP®) certification is a qualification program overseen by the Project Management Institute (PMI). In the computer and information technology (IT) industries, the term project management refers to a methodical approach to software development through defined stages called initiation, planning, executing, controlling and closing.
project planning - Project planning is a discipline for stating how to complete a project within a certain timeframe, usually with defined stages, and with designated resources.
project post-mortem - Project post-mortem is a process intended to inform project improvements by determining aspects that were successful or unsuccessful.
project scope - Project scope is the part of project planning that involves determining and documenting a list of specific project goals, deliverables, tasks and deadlines.
proof of concept - Proof of concept (POC) is documented evidence that a potential product or service can be successful.
prototyping model - The prototyping model is a systems development method (SDM) in which a prototype (an early approximation of a final system or product) is built, tested, and then reworked as necessary until an acceptable prototype is finally achieved.
quality function deployment (QFD) - Quality function deployment (QFD) is the translation of user requirements and requests into product designs.
release - A release is the distribution of a version of an application or product.
release management - Release management is a software engineering process intended to oversee the development, testing, deployment and support of software releases.
release plan - In agile software development, a release plan is an evolving flowchart that describes which features will be delivered in upcoming releases.
relentless incrementalism - Relentless incrementalism is a process in which something substantial is built through the accumulation of small but incessant additions.
repeatable process - A repeatable process is a set of actions that allow for a more efficient use of limited resources and reduce unwanted variation during the development and implementation of various projects.
request for proposal (RFP) - A request for proposal (RFP) is a document that an organization posts to elicit bids from potential vendors for a desired IT solution.
request for quotation - A request for quotation (RFQ) is a document that an organization submits to one or more potential suppliers eliciting quotations for a product or service.
requirements analysis - Requirements analysis, also called requirements engineering, is the process of determining user expectations for a new or modified product.
Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE) - A Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE) is one in which the emphasis is on the actual work done. How or when that work is accomplished is not important.
RS Means - RS Means is a division of Reed Business Information that provides cost information to the construction industry so contractors in the industry can provide accurate estimates and projections for their project costs.
rule of thumb - A rule of thumb is an informal principle that is intended to provide general guidance rather than precise direction.
scrum - Scrum is a project management concept for software development that revolves around the use of multiple small teams working in an intensive, interdependent manner.
scrum master - A scrum master is the facilitator for a product development team that uses scrum, a rugby analogy for a development methodology that allows a team to self-organize and make changes quickly.
seed capital - Seed capital is the funding required to get a new business started.
segregation of duties (SoD) - Segregation of duties (SoD) is an internal control designed to prevent error and fraud by ensuring that at least two individuals are responsible for the separate parts of any task.
self-directed work team (SDWT) - A self-directed work team (SDWT) is a group of people, usually employees in a company, who combine different skills and talents to work without the usual managerial supervision toward a common purpose or goal.
Service Integration Maturity Model (SIMM) - The Service Integration Maturity Model (SIMM) is a paradigm developed by IBM that defines the extent to which various services are integrated in a service-oriented architecture (SOA).
Six Sigma - Six Sigma is a management philosophy developed by Motorola that emphasizes setting extremely high objectives, collecting data, and analyzing results to a fine degree as a way to reduce defects in products and services.
skunkworks - A skunkworks is a group of people who, in order to achieve unusual results, work on a project in a way that is outside the usual rules.
social entrepreneur - A social entrepreneur is an individual who conceptualizes and spearheads business enterprises, such as startups, that are focused on providing service to the community more than financial gain.
social task management - Social task management (STM) is a real-time, collaborative software-based approach to business activities that have traditionally been conducted through asynchronous processes such as document sharing and status updates.
Socialcast - Socialcast is an enterprise social networking and collaboration platform by VMware.
Software Process Improvement and Capability dEtermination (SPICE) - SPICE (Software Process Improvement and Capability dEtermination) is an international framework for assessment of software processes developed jointly by the ISO and the IEC.
software requirements specification (SRS) - A software requirements specification (SRS) is a comprehensive description of the intended purpose and environment for software under development.
spaghetti diagram - A spaghetti diagram (sometimes called a physical process flow or a point-to-point workflow diagram) is a line-based representation of the continuous flow of some entity, such as a person, a product or a piece of information, as it goes through some process.
spike - In agile software development, a spike is a story that cannot be estimated until a development team runs a timeboxed investigation. The output of a spike story is an estimate for the original story.
sprint - In product development, a sprint is a set period of time during which specific work has to be completed and made ready for review.
stand-up - In agile software development, a stand-up is a daily progress meeting, traditionally held within a development area.
state diagram (state machine diagram or statechart diagram) - A state diagram, also called a state machine diagram or statechart diagram, is an illustration of the states an object can attain as well as the transitions between those states in the Unified Modeling Language (UML).
steering committee - A steering committee is a group of high-level advisors who have been appointed to provide an organization or project with direction.
story - In agile software development, a story is a particular business need assigned to the software development team.
storyboard - A storyboard is a graphic organizer that provides the viewer with a high-level view of a project.
story point (story points) - A story point is a metric used in agile project management and development to determine (or estimate) the difficulty of implementing a given story.
sunsetting - Sunsetting, in a business context, is intentionally phasing something out or terminating it.
take off - Take off, sometimes spelled as "take-off" or "takeoff," is a part of the cost estimating process in the construction industry.
time box - In agile software development, a timebox is a defined period of time during which a task must be accomplished.
time management - Time management is the coordination of tasks and activities to maximize the effectiveness of an individual's efforts.
timeboxing - Timeboxing is an approach to task and time management that sets rigid constraints on how long a given task or project can take to complete.
two-pizza rule - The two-pizza rule is a guideline for limiting the number of attendees at a meeting.
Universal Business Language (UBL) - Universal Business Language (UBL) is a royalty-free set of documents based on the ebXML (Electronic Business XML) Core Components Technical Specification, also known as ISO 15000-5.
unit testing - Unit testing is a software development process in which the smallest testable parts of an application, called units, are individually and independently scrutinized for proper operation.
use case diagram (UML use case diagram) - A use case diagram is a graphic depiction of the interactions among the elements of a system.
V-Model - The V-Model, also called the Vee-Model, is a product-development process originally developed in Germany for government defense projects.
vendor neutral - Vendor neutrality is a business and design approach that seeks to ensure broad compatibility and interchangeability of products and technologies.
versioning - Versioning is the creation and management of multiple releases of a product, all of which have the same general function but are improved, upgraded or customized.
vision statement - A vision statement is an organization's declaration of its mid-term and long-term goals.
wild-ass guess (WAG) - A WAG (wild-ass guess) is an estimate for how long it will take to complete a project. In agile and scrum software development, a WAG is often based upon historical experience.
Waterfall model - The waterfall model is a popular version of the systems development life cycle model for software engineering.
Water-Scrum-fall - Water-Scrum-fall is a hybrid approach to application lifecycle management that combines waterfall and Scrum development methodologies.
Web-based project management software – Web-based project management software is the collection of programs, processes and information that is used to manage various phases of a project and that is accessible on the Internet.
webinar - A webinar is an educational, informative or instructional presentation that is made available online, usually as either video or audio with slides.
white box (white box testing) - A white box or clear box is a device, program or system whose internal workings are well understood.
whole-team approach - Whole-team approach, also called team-based approach, is a strategy for project management in which everyone on the project team is held equally responsible for the quality and success of the project.
work breakdown structure (WBS) - A work breakdown structure (WBS) is a chart in which the critical work elements, called tasks, of a project are illustrated to portray their relationships to each other and to the project as a whole.
workflow - Workflow is the series of activities that are necessary to complete a task.
70 percent rule for productivity - The 70 percent rule, in a business context, is a time management principle suggesting that people should withhold a significant amount of their working capacity for better productivity, engagement and work-life balance.
96-minute rule - The 96-minute rule is a productivity guideline recommending that knowledge workers set aside that period of time each day to address their most crucial tasks.